Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process

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University of Chicago Press, Oct 17, 1994 - Science - 395 pages
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Allometry, the study of the growth rate of an organism's parts in relation to the whole, has produced exciting results in research on animals. Now distinguished plant biologist Karl J. Niklas has written the first book to apply allometry to studies of the evolution, morphology, physiology, and reproduction of plants.

Niklas covers a broad spectrum of plant life, from unicellular algae to towering trees, including fossil as well as extant taxa. He examines the relation between organic size and variations in plant form, metabolism, reproduction, and evolution, and draws on the zoological literature to develop allometric techniques for the peculiar problems of plant height, the relation between body mass and body length, and size-correlated variations in rates of growth. For readers unfamiliar with the basics of allometry, an appendix explains basic statistical methods.

For botanists interested in an original, quantitative approach to plant evolution and function, and for zoologists who want to learn more about the value of allometric techniques for studying evolution, Plant Allometry makes a major contribution to the study of plant life.
 

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Contents

Growth and Metabolism
1
12 Growth and Development
4
13 Multicellularity and Modular Construction
7
14 Size and Shape
9
15 Scaling Principles
14
16 Dimensional Analysis
23
17 The 23Power Law
26
18 The 34Power Law
34
General Considerations
156
36 The Mechanical Scaling of Tree Height
164
37 The Mechanical Scaling of Other Terrestrial Plants
175
38 The Scaling of SelfThinning
183
39 Summary
187
Reproduction
189
42 The Scaling of Reproductive Biomass
193
43 Flowers Fruits and Seeds
203

19 Growth and Time
38
110 Photosynthesis and Two Physical Laws
42
111 Organs versus Organisms
53
112 Summary
58
Aquatic Plants
60
22 Absorption Coefficients of Water and Plant Cells
62
23 The Package Effect and the Scaling of Cell Geometry and Shape
66
24 The Transport Equations and Dimensionless Groupings of Variables
75
Phytoplankton
84
The Volvocales
96
27 The Mechanics of Ciliary Motion
108
28 Hydrodynamic Forces and the Mechanics of Attached Aquatic Plants
113
29 Summary
121
Terrestrial Plants
123
32 Heat and Mass Transfer and Boundary Layer Resistances
129
33 Stomatal Resistances
139
34 The Mechanical Scaling of Foliage Leaves
143
44 Branches and Reproductive Structures
224
45 The Scaling of LongDistance Dispersal
236
46 Size and Gender Expression
246
47 Summary
251
Evolution
254
52 Heterochrony
262
53 Heterauxesis and Allomorphosis
274
54 On Being Small or Large
290
55 The Scaling of the Plant Life Cycle
300
56 The Evolution of Plant Life Histories
307
57 Summary
314
Epilogue
316
Methods
319
References
363
Author Index
381
Subject Index
386
Copyright

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About the author (1994)

Karl J. Niklas is the Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Plant Biology in the Department of Plant Biology at Cornell University. He is the author of Plant Biomechanics, Plant Allometry, and The Evolutionary Biology of Plants, all published by the University of Chicago Press. 

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