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The Rise of the Towns By H VAN WERVEKE Professor in the University of Ghent I Introduction
The New Fortifications
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activity allowed authority became borrowing Bruges capital centres cloth companies competition concerned continued contract count course craft Crown debts demand depended direct early economic effective England English established Europe evidence example existed export fact fairs favoured fifteenth century Flanders Flemish forced foreign fourteenth century France French German gild granted hand important increase industry interests internal Italian Italy king land late later least less limited loans London Louis matter measures medieval merchants Middle Ages monopoly officials organization Paris particularly period Philip political position practice princes privileges production profit regions regulations restricted royal rule rulers secure sources supply territorial thirteenth century tion towns trade twelfth urban wool