## Metrology and Fundamental Constants"This volume can be justified by the following three facts, the need to provide, from time to time, a co-ordinated set of lectures which present the relevant progress in Metrology, the increasing intertwining between Fundamental Physics and the practice of Metrological Measurements, and, third, the flurry of new and unexpected discoveries in this field, with a correlated series of Nobel Prizes bestowed to individuals working in Fundamental Constants research and novel experimental methods. One of the most fascinating and exciting characteristics of metrology is its intimate relationship between fundamental physics and the leading edge of technology which is needed to perform advanced and challenging experiments and measurements, as well as the determination of the values and interrelations between the Fundamental Constants. In some cases, such as the caesium fountains clocks or the optical frequency standards, the definition of the value of a quantity is, in the laboratory, in the region of 10-16 and experiments are under way to reach 10-18. Many of these results and the avenues leading to further advances are discussed in this volume, along a major step in metrology, expected in the near future, which could change the old definition of the kilogram, still based on a mechanical artefact, toward a new definition resting on a fixed value of a fundamental constant." |

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### Contents

Metrology and society | 1 |

Past times to the present day | 11 |

The organization of metrology | 21 |

The role of instruments | 35 |

An outline | 45 |

Physical quantities | 59 |

Recent developments in uncertainty evaluation | 81 |

Electrical metrology | 95 |

Time scales and relativity | 367 |

Low and ultralow temperatures | 393 |

Hightemperature metrology and prospects for a new definition of the kelvin | 427 |

Metrological applications of acoustic and microwave resonators | 455 |

Underlying assumptions present best practice new frontiers | 473 |

Redefinition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant | 499 |

The measurements of NsubA and NsubAh | 519 |

Metrology to support the development of nanotechnology | 533 |

The application of the Josephson and quantum Hall effects in electrical metrology | 135 |

Single charge transport standards and quantummetrological triangle experiments | 181 |

Applications to metrology | 211 |

Metrology with cold atoms | 263 |

Atomic frequency standards properties and applications | 287 |

Frequency combs applications and optical frequency standards | 317 |

Metrology for chemical measurements in the environment | 549 |

Developments in optical radiometry | 573 |

Classical and quantum techniques for photon metrology | 611 |

Elenco dei partecipanti | 639 |

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accuracy applications array atomic clocks BIPM caesium calibration capacitance cavity CIPM coherent comparison cryogenic radiometer defined definition density detector determined developed device diffraction Doppler edited effect electrical electron energy equation experimental experiments fine-structure constant fountain frequency comb frequency standards fundamental constants Hall resistance hyperfine IEEE Trans Instrum interaction International Josephson junction Josephson voltage standard junction kilogram laboratories laser beam laser cooling Lett magnetic field mass Meas measurement method metrology microwave mode NIST NMIs noise operation optical frequency oscillator output parameters phase photodiode photon Phys physical Planck constant pressure primary pulse pump quantities quantized quantum Hall quantum Hall effect quantum Hall resistance radiation radiometry ratio realization reference relative resonance sample scale shift spectral stability techniques thermal thermodynamic temperature thermometer thermometry traceable transfer transition trap uncertainty velocity watt balance wave