Metrology and Fundamental Constants, Volume 166

Front Cover
Theo W. Hńnsch
IOS Press, 2007 - Science - 649 pages
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"This volume can be justified by the following three facts, the need to provide, from time to time, a co-ordinated set of lectures which present the relevant progress in Metrology, the increasing intertwining between Fundamental Physics and the practice of Metrological Measurements, and, third, the flurry of new and unexpected discoveries in this field, with a correlated series of Nobel Prizes bestowed to individuals working in Fundamental Constants research and novel experimental methods. One of the most fascinating and exciting characteristics of metrology is its intimate relationship between fundamental physics and the leading edge of technology which is needed to perform advanced and challenging experiments and measurements, as well as the determination of the values and interrelations between the Fundamental Constants. In some cases, such as the caesium fountains clocks or the optical frequency standards, the definition of the value of a quantity is, in the laboratory, in the region of 10-16 and experiments are under way to reach 10-18. Many of these results and the avenues leading to further advances are discussed in this volume, along a major step in metrology, expected in the near future, which could change the old definition of the kilogram, still based on a mechanical artefact, toward a new definition resting on a fixed value of a fundamental constant."
 

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Contents

Metrology and society
1
Past times to the present day
11
The organization of metrology
21
The role of instruments
35
An outline
45
Physical quantities
59
Recent developments in uncertainty evaluation
81
Electrical metrology
95
Time scales and relativity
367
Low and ultralow temperatures
393
Hightemperature metrology and prospects for a new definition of the kelvin
427
Metrological applications of acoustic and microwave resonators
455
Underlying assumptions present best practice new frontiers
473
Redefinition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant
499
The measurements of NsubA and NsubAh
519
Metrology to support the development of nanotechnology
533

The application of the Josephson and quantum Hall effects in electrical metrology
135
Single charge transport standards and quantummetrological triangle experiments
181
Applications to metrology
211
Metrology with cold atoms
263
Atomic frequency standards properties and applications
287
Frequency combs applications and optical frequency standards
317
Metrology for chemical measurements in the environment
549
Developments in optical radiometry
573
Classical and quantum techniques for photon metrology
611
Elenco dei partecipanti
639
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