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accumulation acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount average capital capitalist cause cent circulating capital circumstances commodity competition condition considerable consumed consumption cost of production cottier cultivation degree demand depends diminished division of labour duction effect employed employment England equal exchange exchange value exertion exist expense farmer farms favourable fertility fixed France greater habits hectares human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind labouring class land landlord Law of Value less limited manufacture manure materials means meme ment metayer mode necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant peasant proprietors permanent persons political economy population portion possession present principle produce proportion purchase rate of profit remuneration rent saving says Sismondi society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose surplus tenant things tion trade unless unproductive wages wealth whole yield
Page 275 - ... the largest portions to those who have never worked at all, the next largest to those whose work is almost nominal, and so in a descending scale...
Page 266 - The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society. The rules by which it is determined, are what the opinions and feelings of the ruling portion of the community make them, and are very different in different ages and countries ; and might be still more different, if mankind so chose.
Page 165 - But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Page 245 - A greater number of people cannot, in any given state of civilization, be collectively so well provided for as a smaller. The niggardliness of nature, not the injustice of society, is the cause of the penalty attached to overpopulation. An unjust distribution of wealth does not aggravate the evil, but, at most, causes it to be somewhat earlier felt. It is in vain to say that all mouths which the increase of mankind calls into existence bring with them hands.
Page 266 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Page 128 - Capital which in this manner fulfils tliu whole of its office in the production in which it is engaged, by a single use, is called Circulating Capital.
Page 381 - Notes of a Traveller. 8vo. price 12s. Laing's (S.) Observations on the Social and Political State of the European People in 1848 and 1849: Being the Second Series of Notes of a Traveller.
Page 203 - Lavergne, undertaken by desire of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the Institute of France, have led to the conclusion that since the Revolution of 1789, the total produce of French agriculture has doubled; profits and wages having both increased in about the same, and rent in a still greater ratio.
Page 483 - ... the ships and the conversation and adventures of the sailors should entice him to go to sea. The distant prospect of hazards, from which we can hope to extricate ourselves by courage and address, is not disagreeable to us, and does not raise the wages of labour in any employment. It is otherwise with those in which courage and address can be of no avail. In trades which are known to be very unwholesome, the wages of labour are always remarkably high. Unwholesomeness is a species of disagreeableness,...