The 'Mother of All Trades': The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century
In the early-modern period, the Dutch called the grain trade on the Baltic the 'mother of all trades', as they considered it to be the basis of most of their trade and shipping and indeed the cornerstone of the Dutch economy. For a very long time the mass grain exports from the Baltic were dominated by the Dutch, and Amsterdam was the central entrepot from which the grain was distributed over the Dutch hinterland and the rest of Europe. This book aims to present a general history of the 'mother of all trades' and particularly shows the fundamental importance for transaction costs, including the costs for transport, insurance and protection, the quality of the local services sector in Amsterdam, the influence of monetary and mercantile policies, and the efficiency of trade organization.
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Admiralty Adrichem agents Amsterdam merchants Antwerp average Baltic exports Baltic grain exports Baltic grain trade Baltic merchants Baltic region Baltic Sea Baltic trade Bogucka bread brokers Bronnen burgomasters cent chants chartered commodities Cornelis Hooft Danzig delegates Dillen directors Dudok van Heel Dutch guilders Dutch merchants Dutch Republic Dutch ships Dutch trade economic eighteenth century enterprises entrepot Europe example fact factors firm fleet fluyt foreign freight rates GAA PA 78 GAA RA graanhandel grain carriers Grain Exchange grain measurers grain prices guild members guilders Handvesten Holland important Jansz Konigsberg letters lightermen lighters measurers Mennonite Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum Netherlands nineteenth century Noordkerk Northern War overseas period Pieter port price currents profits provinces role Rotterdam sailing seventeenth century shipmasters shipowners sixteenth century Sound Toll stuivers teenth century Tielhof tion town trade and shipping transaction costs Veluwenkamp voyage wages wheat Willem de Clercq Winkelman Zeeland