Case Studies in Dental Hygiene
Educators need case-based learning tools that may be integrated throughout the dental hygiene curriculum. Within the educational environment exists the goal to assist students in linking basic knowledge to dental hygiene care that is evidence-based and client-centered. With the constantly evolving knowledge base and changing technologies, dental hygiene faculty are challenged to incorporate educational technologies that exceed knowledge acquisition and focus on critical decision making.Case Studies in Dental Hygieneis a viable educational tool to help students learn to apply basic knowledge to client care and to prepare them for success on national, regional and state examinations which have a client care focus.
Case Studies in Dental Hygieneis designed to guide the development of critical thinking skills and the application of theory to care at all levels of dental hygiene education—from beginning to advanced students. Additionally, during the course of their formal education, dental hygiene students can be exposed only to a small spectrum of cases they might encounter in the real world. The diversity of the cases in this text provides an avenue for simulating experiences students might not encounter in their education. This text is designed to cover a broad array of topics, to be adaptable for use in a variety of courses, and to be used across student knowledge and skill levels.
This text is designed to be utilized throughout the dental hygiene curriculum. Because the questions and decisions regarding treatment of each case span the dental hygiene sciences and clinical practice protocols, this text will find a place in enhancing each and every course required of dental hygiene students. It is expected thatCase Studies in Dental Hygienewould be introduced at the beginning of the student's educational experience and be utilized throughout the program of study. As the students' knowledge base develops, the answers to the more complex questions would become apparent. If the text were introduced early in the program, students would realize the link between theory and client care immediately. Once exposed to the cases, students progress through the program with a heightened awareness, a "need to know," a's new material is introduced which can be applied to answer case-based questions. Additionally,Case Studies in Dental Hygienemakes an excellent review text for graduating dental hygiene students preparing to take the Dental Hygiene National Board Examination.
Case Studies in Dental Hygienepresents oral health case situations representing a variety of clients that would typically be encountered in clinical settings. There are 10 cases, 2 each representing the following client types: pediatric, adult periodontally involved, geriatric, special needs, and medically compromised. Each case contains a medical history, dental history, vital signs (including blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rates), radiographs, dental and periodontal charting, intraoral photographs, and photographs of study models, where applicable. Additionally, learning objectives and multiple-choice questions are identified for each case. Questions are subdivided into the following categories: assessing client characteristics, obtaining and interpreting dental radiographs, planning and managing dental hygiene care; performing periodontal procedures, using preventive agents, and providing supportive treatment services. Each question is clearly identified as "basic" or "complex," further guiding educators and students to use each case to maximum benefit. Students will be challenged to seek answers and select appropriate care for the clients in each case scenario. Correct answers and rationales for incorrect responses are provided for all questions. Providing descriptive rationales for incorrect answers further enhances learning. Reflective activities and a section incorporating the Human Needs Conceptual Model to Dental Hygiene Practice guide the instructor in developing additional learning activities for the student. The rapidly increasing, constantly changing knowledge base and technologies associated with clinical practice mandate that dental hygiene professionals be prepared to provide oral care that meets the needs of the whole client. The Human Needs Conceptual Model to Dental Hygiene Practice has been established as a means of linking oral care with the general health of an individual. Although many dental hygiene programs have incorporated the Human Needs Conceptual Model into their curriculum, others are in need of educational tools which assist with this incorporation.Case Studies in Dental Hygiene,provides educators with a bank of ready-made cases with which to guide students to integrate client needs or deficits with dental hygiene care planning. Each case lists suggestions for creating decision-making opportunities for the students, regarding client care and treatment recommendations that promote oral health and prevent oral diseases.HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
Each chapter contains one case scenario, making it a stand-alone module that may be introduced in any order and at any time during the curriculum. While there are a variety of ways in which to utilize the case studies, educators may benefit from the suggestions listed here. Cases C and D, The Periodontally Involved Adult Client, could be used as required reading for the preclinical student to introduce the dental hygiene process of care. Because each case contains questions that are knowledge-based as well as complex decision-making questions, the beginning student may be directed to answer the "basic" questions. During theory class, a discussion of these answers may help to increase the incidence of critical thinking skills and can reinforce and facilitate learning in a dynamic, stimulating manner motivating the student to more fully participate in the learning process. Because the questions for each case are subdivided into client assessment, radiographic services, planning and management of care, periodontal procedures, and supplemental services, instructors of basic dental hygiene sciences may easily identify those questions which supplement learning in their disciplines. The radiology instructor may utilize the "basic" questions of all the cases, directing the beginning student to those questions under the subdivision "obtaining and interpreting dental radiographs" while the pharmacology instructor may use Cases I and J, The Medically Compromised Client, to provide a realistic setting to assist students in linking drug interactions which may contraindicate dental hygiene care with planning and managing treatment. Cases A and B, The Pediatric Client, may provide an opportunity for the student to identify eruption patterns, learned in head and neck anatomy or tooth and root morphology courses. Applying theory and knowledge gained in the basic dental hygiene sciences to solve problems encountered through case-based questioning allows the student to become actively involved in the learning process. After all, the challenge of case-based instruction is to maximize students' synthesis of theoretical material and provide a link between science, theory, and clinical practice.Case Studies in Dental Hygienemay compliment and enhance material learned in other texts. For example, students learning instrument design from a theory book may link application of this knowledge when challenged by case photographs and charts to choose an appropriate instrument for scaling a specific area. Radiographic problem solving skills are further enhanced by examination of the case radiographs when the student is challenged not only to identify technique and processing errors, but also to recommend corrective action.
In addition to basic questions, each case contains complex questions that challenge advanced students to develop improved clinical reasoning that will assist them in real-world clinical practice. As students progress through the curriculum, the same cases may be revisited through the use of complex questions. Students usually respond favorably to the opportunity to apply knowledge gained in the classroom to fictional cases. The ability to plan treatment and simulate implementation through case study provides the student with a stress-free environment in which to make decisions. Students report increased confidence when faced with treatment planning and implementation decisions regarding clients in the clinical setting. Students also perceive an increase in confidence regarding preparation for national and regional board examinations when they have been given the opportunity to practice decision making.
In case-based teaching, a frequent faculty complaint is that students and faculty have difficulty integrating information from various courses within the discipline to the case-based format. Healthcare educators are fully cognizant that effective clinical judgment only comes from experience, since it is the use of real life situations which encourages student analysis and decision making in areas relevant to professional practice. However, most faculty do not consider themselves experts on all dimensions of a problem, and as a result may be limited in their use of case studies. To overcome the limited use of case studies to specific disciplines,Case Studies in Dental Hygienewas written by several authors, each an expert in a specific aspect of dental hygiene care. This multi-author approach to the development of the cases contained in this book, is intended to provide other dental hygiene educators with a ready-made bank of cases upon which to build meaningful learning activities' for the student. Additionally, the authors hope that the format and content ofCase Studies in Dental Hygienewill provide students with an opportunity to practice critical decision-making skills and reinforce and facilitate learning in a dynamic, stimulating manner, thereby motivating students to more fully participate in the learning process. This book was designed specifically to encourage dental hygiene students to base client care decisions on knowledge gained in theory, thus fostering in students an appreciation of the link between theory and clinical practice.
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CASE A Pediatric ClientMaya Patel
CASEC Adult Periodontally Involved ClientKatherine Flynn
CASE F Geriatric ClientVirginia Carson
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