## Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray SpectroscopyAlpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Volume 1 offers a comprehensive account of radioactivity and related low-energy phenomena. It summarizes progress in the field of alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, including the discovery of the non-conservation of parity, as well as new experimental methods that elucidate the processes of weak interactions in general and beta-decay in particular. Comprised of 14 chapters, the book presents experimental methods and theoretical discussions and calculations to maintain the link between experiment and theory. It begins with a discussion of the interaction of electrons and alpha particles with matter. The book explains the elastic scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei and the interaction between gamma-radiation and matter. It then introduces topic on beta-ray spectrometer theory and design and crystal diffraction spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays. Moreover, the book discusses the applications of the scintillation counter; proportional counting in gases; and the general processes and procedures used in determining disintegration schemes through a study of the beta- and gamma-rays emitted. In addition, it covers the nuclear shell model; collective nuclear motion and the unified model; and alpha-decay conservation laws. The emissions of gamma-radiation during charged particle bombardment and from fission fragments, as well as the neutron-capture radiation spectroscopy, are also explained. Experimentalists will find this book extremely useful. |

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### Contents

1 | |

37 | |

CHAPTER III BETARAY SPECTROMETER THEORY AND DESIGN MAGNETIC ALPHARAY SPECTROSCOPY HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTR... | 79 |

CHAPTER IV CRYSTAL DIFFRACTION SPECTROSCOPY OF NUCLEAR yRAYS | 203 |

CHAPTER V THE SCINTILLATION METHOD | 245 |

CHAPTER VI PARTICULAR DETECTION METHODS | 303 |

CHAPTER VII SOME EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES | 379 |

CHAPTER VIII PROCEDURES FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF DISINTEGRATION SCHEMES | 467 |

CHAPTER X COLLECTIVE NUCLEAR MOTION AND THE UNIFIED MODEL | 601 |

CHAPTER XI ALPHADECAY | 701 |

CHAPTER XII GAMMARADIATION FROM CHARGED PARTICLE BOMBARDMENTCOULOMB EXCITATION | 745 |

CHAPTER XIII NEUTRON CAPTURE RADIATION SPECTROSCOPY | 769 |

CHAPTER XIVGAMMARADIATION FROM FISSION | 805 |

APPENDIX 1 | 827 |

APPENDIX 2 | 845 |

CHAPTER IX THE SHELL MODEL | 557 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption angular momentum approximately atomic Barns/atom Barns/atom beam bremsstrahlung calculated capture coefﬁcients coherent coincidence collimator Compton conﬁguration corresponding Coulomb Coulomb excitation counting rate cross section crystal spectrometer curve decay decay scheme deﬁned deﬁnition detector determined diffraction double focusing effect efﬁciency electrons emission emitted equation excited experimental factor ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁlled ﬁlm ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁssion ﬂat foil geometry high energy Instr instrument intensity interaction internal conversion isotopes line width low energy magnetic ﬁeld measured method neutron Nucl nuclear nuclei nucleons obtained orbital pair production parity particle peak phosphor photoelectrons Phys proportional counter proton pulse height quadrupole quasi-particle radiation radioactive ratio reﬂecting region relative resolution rotational scattering scintillation scintillation counter shell model shown in Fig Siegbahn single-particle solid angle speciﬁc spectra spectrometer spectroscopy spectrum spherical spin technique theoretical thickness transitions transmission values wave function X-ray y-radiation y-ray