Ontology-Based Interpretation of Natural Language
Morgan & Claypool Publishers, Mar 1, 2014 - Computers - 178 pages
For humans, understanding a natural language sentence or discourse is so effortless that we hardly ever think about it. For machines, however, the task of interpreting natural language, especially grasping meaning beyond the literal content, has proven extremely difficult and requires a large amount of background knowledge. This book focuses on the interpretation of natural language with respect to specific domain knowledge captured in ontologies. The main contribution is an approach that puts ontologies at the center of the interpretation process. This means that ontologies not only provide a formalization of domain knowledge necessary for interpretation but also support and guide the construction of meaning representations. We start with an introduction to ontologies and demonstrate how linguistic information can be attached to them by means of the ontology lexicon model lemon. These lexica then serve as basis for the automatic generation of grammars, which we use to compositionally construct meaning representations that conform with the vocabulary of an underlying ontology. As a result, the level of representational granularity is not driven by language but by the semantic distinctions made in the underlying ontology and thus by distinctions that are relevant in the context of a particular domain. We highlight some of the challenges involved in the construction of ontology-based meaning representations, and show how ontologies can be exploited for ambiguity resolution and the interpretation of temporal expressions. Finally, we present a question answering system that combines all tools and techniques introduced throughout the book in a real-world application, and sketch how the presented approach can scale to larger, multi-domain scenarios in the context of the Semantic Web.
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Putting Everything Together
Ontological Reasoning for Ambiguity Resolution
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adjectives aligned ambiguities approach Arminia Bielefeld blank node capture Chapter Cimiano conceptualization construct context corresponding datatype DBpedia defined description logics discourse domain domain-independent Drogba DRSs DUDES elementary trees example expressions first-order logic formalisms goal goalkeeper grammar entry instantiation interpretation of natural interpretation process James Pustejovsky knowledge lemon lemon:canonicalForm lemon:LexicalEntry lemon:objOfProp lemon:reference lemon:sense lemon:subsense lemon:synBehavior lemon:Word lemon:writtenRep lexical entry lexicon LexInfo lexinfo:partOfSpeech lexinfo:subject linguistic LTAG tree match meaning representations Natural Language Processing noun ontology lexica ontology-based interpretation OWL 2 DL Pelé penalty kick phrase predicates prefix prepositional object quantifier question answering referent marker relation represent resource:Pelé respect score selection pairs semantic representations Semantic Web sentence soccer soccer ontology soccer:Team soccer:winner SPARQL specify stadium structure substitution node syntactic and semantic syntactic arguments temporal transitive verb underspecified Uruguay variables verb vocabulary winner