The Reference Book
John Hawthorne and David Manley present an original treatment of the semantic phenomenon of reference and the cognitive phenomenon of singular thought. In Part I, they argue against the idea that either is tied to a special relation of causal or epistemic acquaintance. Part II challenges the alleged semantic rift between definite and indefinite descriptions on the one hand, and names and demonstratives on the other—a division that has been motivated in part by appeals to considerations of acquaintance. Drawing on recent work in linguistics and philosophical semantics, Hawthorne and Manley explore a more unified account of all four types of expression according to which none of them paradigmatically fits the profile of a referential term. On the preferred framework put forward in The Reference Book, all four types of expression involve existential quantification but admit of uses that exhibit many of the traits associated with reference—a phenomenon that is due to the presence of what Hawthorne and Manley call a 'singular restriction' on the existentially quantified domain. The book concludes by drawing out some implications of the proposed semantic picture for the traditional categories of reference and singular thought.
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acquaintance constraint actual anaphoric appears approach arguably argument ascription attitude reports audience belief reports bifurcated view calling causal Chapter claim Clark Kent cognitive Consider context contrast David definite descriptions demonstratives discussion domain restriction Elbourne epistemic Evans example existential quantifier explain expression fact false felicitous Fintel function grasp Harvey Dent idea individual intuitions involve Jeffrey King John John’s Kaplan kind knowledge knucklehead language Leverrier linguistic modal modal operators naıve natural neo-Fregean Neptune notion noun phrase object one’s particular phenomenon philosophers pick plural predicate view presupposes presupposition problem proposal Propositional Attitudes Ralph believes reading reference referential terms relation relative relative clauses relevant representation requires Rigid Designators Russellian semantic value sentence shortest spy simply singleton restrictor singular content singular proposition singular restrictor singular thought Smith Socrates someone specific indefinites Suppose theorists Tim Williamson treat true truth truth-conditional truth-value unique utterance variable