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change jobs Chi-square distribution coefficients decreases the rate determinant of promotions determinants of upward Differences in Upward different organizational positions Doctor of Philosophy effect for managers effects of individual higher rewards higher the level hiring situations hypotheses important determinants independent variables individual resources individual's individuals in nonunion individuals in unionized individuals in unskilled involves on-the-job training job rewards job shift behavior job-person matches jobs with higher labor market LIKELIHOOD RATIO TEST measures mobility across organizational movement across organizational nonmanagerial professionals organization-specific resources organizational boundaries organizations evaluate individuals origin job ORIGIN WAGE past job changing PAST VOLUNTARY SHIFTS present employer promotion situations racial/ethnic groups rate of promotions rate of upward resources and job rH rH sample Secondly shift across organizational shifts within organizational skilled positions structural heterogeneity Table VIII Tuma unionized positions unit change unskilled positions upward job shift upward mobility upward movement whereas whites and nonwhites