Variation: A Central Concept in Biology
Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Brian K. Hall
Academic Press, May 4, 2011 - Science - 592 pages
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection was based on the observation that there is variation between individuals within the same species. This fundamental observation is a central concept in evolutionary biology. However, variation is only rarely treated directly. It has remained peripheral to the study of mechanisms of evolutionary change. The explosion of knowledge in genetics, developmental biology, and the ongoing synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology has made it possible for us to study the factors that limit, enhance, or structure variation at the level of an animals' physical appearance and behavior. Knowledge of the significance of variability is crucial to this emerging synthesis. Variation situates the role of variability within this broad framework, bringing variation back to the center of the evolutionary stage.
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Academy of Sciences adaptive alleles analysis antisymmetry Badyaev buffering canalization cell Cheverud complex constraints correlation covariation craniofacial cryptic genetic variation Darwin Developmental Biology developmental noise developmental stability developmental systems developmental variation direction Drosophila Drosophila melanogaster Ecology effects environment environmental epistasis evolution Evolutionary Biology evolutionary change evolutionary developmental biology evolve example experimental factors Figure fluctuating asymmetry function gene expression genetic variation genome genotype growth Hallgrímsson heritable increase interactions internal variance Journal Klingenberg landmarks loci mandible measure mechanisms melanogaster mice modularity modules molecular morph morphological morphological integration morphometric mutation rates natural selection networks ontogeny organismal organisms parameters patterns perturbations phenotypic plasticity phenotypic variation pleiotropy population potential produce protein quantitative genetic random reaction norms recombination regulation regulatory relationship response result sample Sciences USA shape signaling skull species stabilizing selection statistical stress stress-induced stressor structure studies tion transcription University Press variability Wagner wing Zelditch Zoology