Environmental assessment of surface mining methods
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, [Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry], Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, 1979 - Strip mining
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acid ANFO bench berms CD CD CD CD CM Clearing and grubbing CM CD CM CM CM CO CM Coal seams compaction CONDITION cubic Cumberland Plateau diversion ditches Dozers drain drainage Drill hole spacing Drilling and blasting eastern Kentucky environmental equipment Erosion control Erosion potential excavated Fertilizer Mulch Figure fill face fill mass Final fill form french drain Front-end loaders grade head-of-hollow fill head-of-hollow fill construction highway hollow fill Hydroseeder Kentucky Kentucky 31 fescue kg/Ha land Lift design material meters Mining Techniques mountaintop removal mountaintop removal mining Mulch operation outslope overburden Pedology PERCENT precipitation Regrading Revegetation Area rock core runoff sandstone sanos ivioi Seed mixture shale soil association spoil disposal Spoil haulage distance Spoil placement stability steep surface mining Table temperature terrain Tiability toe of fill trucks Type explosive Underdrainage system valleys Virginia and Kentucky waste Water Quality windrowed wood fiber
Page ii - This report has been reviewed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Page ii - US Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. UMMU DEPOS. 0 7/ '97 FOREWORD...
Page iii - Branch of the Resource Extraction and Handling Division. David G. Stephan Director Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory Cincinnati ABSTRACT...
Page 197 - January 1976 February 1976 March 1976 April 1976 May 1976 June 1976 July 1976 August 1976 September 1976 October 1976 November 1976 December 1976 January 1977 February 1977 March 1977 April 1977 May 1977...
Page 10 - Sidedumping can only be accomplished effectively in relatively steep terrain). • When fills are constructed by dumping from a higher elevation, there should be a good mix of end dumping and sidedumping (spoil tends to be plate shaped and dumping from one location will align material in a single plane creating slip failure planes). The fill should be benched for increased stability...
Page 36 - During final slope formation, the seedbed is prepared by spreading a suitable top material over the face of each completed lift. The dozer's cleat depressions are left to serve as seed traps. In a one-step operation the hydroseeder applies seed, nutrients, mulch and water to the prepared seedbed. A certain degree of freedom is permitted the operator in choosing the...
Page 151 - It must be emphasized that, while a certain amount of leveled mountaintop land is a highly desirable reclamation goal, development potential throughout much of this area is inherently low. It makes little sense to create unlimited developable land in an area where it is not required at the expense of the innate beauty of the region. This is not to say that the area should not be mined or that the adverse environmental impacts of surface mining in these regions are insurmountable or irrevocable, for...
Page 17 - TEMPERATURE--The maps of January and July mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature illustrate the winter and summer thermal patterns. Despite several considerable differences, the maps share a common feature: there is about as much temperature contrast across the State from east to west as there is in twice the distance from north to south. This condition prevails throughout the year, though it varies in magnitude with the seasons and cannot be expected to hold every day. Here the general effect...
Page 16 - ... the main part of the State in two parts. The eastern third of the plateau is part of the Appalachian Mountain chain and contains the highest land in the State. Peak elevations in this area range from about 2,500 feet to 4,860 feet (above sea level) at Spruce Knob, the highest point in West Virginia. The central and western thirds of the plateau slope generally westward to the Ohio River which lies at about 550 to 650 feet above sea level. In the north and west, the Allegheny Plateau has been...