An extraordinary detailed manual on statecraft and the science of living by one of classical India's greatest minds; Kautilya; also known as Chanakya and Vishnugupta; wrote the Arthashastra not later than 150 AD though the date has not been conclusively established. Legend has it that he was either a Brahmin from Kerala or from north India; however; it is certain that Kautilya was the man who destroyed the Nanda dynasty and installed Chandragupta Maurya as the King of Magadha. A master strategist who was well-versed in the Vedas and adept at creating intrigues and devising political stratagems; Kautilya's genius is reflected in his Arthashastra which is the most comprehensive treatise of statecraft of classical times. The text contains fifteen books which cover numerous topics viz.; the King; a complete code of law; foreign policy; secret and occult practices and so on. The Arthashastra is written mainly in prose but also incorporates 380 shlokas. Artha; literally wealth; is one of four supreme aims prescribed by Hindu tradition. However; it has a much wider significance and the material well-being of individuals is just a part of it. In accordance with this; Kautilya's Arthashastra maintains that the state or government of a country has a vital role to play in maintaining the material status of both the nation and its people. Therefore; a significant part of the Arthashastra has to do with the science of economics. When it deals with the science of politics; the Arthashastra describes in detail the art of government in its widest sense—the maintenance of law and order as also of an efficient administrative machinery.
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THE STATE AND ITS CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS Part III THE KING
THE WELLORGANIZED STATE
TREASURY SOURCES OF REVENUE BUDGET ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT
CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS
THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT
LAW AND JUSTICE
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12 panas 24 panas aggressor ally animals army artha Arthashastra Arya ascetics attack battle besieged bonded labour Brahmins Brihaspati calamity campaign chandalas Chandragupta Maurya chariots Chief Controller Chief Superintendent clandestine agents collect commodities conqueror councillors countryside Crown death dharma Dharmashastras duties elephant forests enemy enemy’s fight forces foreign policy gifts given giving grain Highest SP horses hostage husband janapada jungle tribes Kangle Kautilya disagrees killed king’s kingdom Kshatriya labour land loss Lowest SP marriage merchants metals methods Middle king ministers neighbour Neutral king offence oligarchy one’s outmanoeuvres payment peace person poison prescribed prince protection punishment purohita rear responsible revenue revolt secret agents slave someone sowing dissension stronger king Sudra territorial army territory theft trade traitors translation treasury treaty troops types Ushanas Vaishya varna verses village wages weak king weaker wealth wife woman women