Shaping Brazil's Petrochemical Industry: The Importance of Foreign Firm Origin in Tripartite Joint Ventures
During the Brazilian miracle (1967-1973), Brazil experienced impressive growth in GNP which exceeded 10% annually. One of the factors responsible for this was the existence of a triple alliance among the strong state bureaucracy, the influential national private bourgeoisie and the large number of foreign investors. The central question of this book is to what extent has industrial development in Brazil been influenced by the triple alliance in general, and tripartite joint ventures in particular during the '70s and '80s. Special attention will be given to the role of foreign transnationals. Using the petrochemical industry in Brazil as an example, Japanese, American and European participation in tripartite joint ventures is compared, focusing on two aspects: the stability of joint ventures structures in the tripartite model and the transfer of technology. This case study of the petrochemical complex of Camacari, located in the state of Bahia, shows that foreign firm origin plays a decisive role in the functioning of the tripartite model. Joint ventures with Japanese companies, which had arrived more recently in Brazil, lacked technological knowledge of petrochemical production, had a different corporate culture, and were more stable than those with American and European companies
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The development of the chemical industry in Brazil
a world scale
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ABIQUIM American and European Bahia BASF bedrijven BNDES Brazilian government Brazilian petrochemical industry Camacari complex Camacari firms capital accumulation central cracking unit chemical branch chemical firms chemical sector complex of Camacari construction COPEC Copene dependent development directors Dow Chemical Evans expansion export figures fine chemical firm survey foreign companies foreign firms foreign investments foreign participants foreign partner Gazeta Mercantil important increased industrial development industrial sectors internal investors Japanese Japanese companies Japanese firms joint venture firms joint venture structures large number Latin America managers million US dollars Mitsubishi multinational national partner national petrochemical national private number of firms ownership structure parent company Petrobras petrochemical branch petrochemical complex petrochemical firms petrochemical production petrochemical sector Petroquimica Petroquisa projects Quimica Rhodia Rio de Janeiro role Sao Paulo sogo shosha strategy subsidiaries technocracy technology transfer Third World Third World countries transfer of technology tripartite joint ventures tripartite model triple alliance Unipar zijn