The Useful Metals and Their Alloys: Including Mining Ventilation, Mining Jurisprudence, and Metallurgic Chemistry Employed in the Conversion of Iron, Copper, Tin, Zinc, Antimony and Lead Ores; with Their Applications to the Industrial Arts

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Houlston and Wright, 1869 - Metals - 654 pages

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Page 256 - ... lastly, that the temperature which the metal would acquire would be also dependent on the rapidity with which the oxygen and carbon were made to combine, and consequently that it was only necessary to bring the oxygen and carbon together in such a manner that a vast surface should be exposed to their mutual action, in order to produce a temperature hitherto unattainable in our largest furnaces.
Page 268 - ... times its original length. One of the most important facts connected with the new system of manufacturing malleable iron is that all the iron so produced will be of that quality known as charcoal iron; not that any charcoal is used in its manufacture, but because the whole of the processes following the smelting of it are conducted entirely without contact with, or the use of, any mineral fuel; the iron resulting therefrom will in consequence be perfectly...
Page 263 - ... which will thus wash and cleanse the metal most thoroughly from the silica and other earthy bases, which are combined with the crude iron, while the sulphur and other volatile matters, which cling so tenaciously to iron at ordinary temperatures, are driven off, the sulphur combining with the oxygen, and forms sulphuric acid gas.
Page 256 - At one side of the vessel, about half way up from the bottom, there is a hole made for running in the crude metal, and on the opposite side there is a tap-hole stopped with loam, by means of which the iron is run out at the end of the process. In practice this converting vessel may be made of any convenient size, but I prefer that it should not hold less than one, or more than five tons, of fluid iron at each charge.
Page 475 - ... ship being in a state of tension, it is, on the contrary, in a state of compression, and the whole of those parts below the neutral axis are subjected to that strain. On the other hand, the upper part is in a state of tension...
Page 497 - ... it. In this plan the mould for the face of every casting is formed from the original metal pattern, and the pattern itself is firmly and permanently secured in the plaster bed, so that however thin and delicate it may be, there is no risk of injury to the pattern in moulding any number of castings : as many as 3000 have been cast without injury from a slender ornamental pattern. In forming the...
Page 358 - ... but I do not claim the use of any such mixture of cast and malleable iron, or malleable iron and carbonaceous matter, as any part of my invention, but only the use of carburet of manganese, in any process for the conversion of iron into cast-steel...
Page 474 - Single-riveted joint . 1000 1021 791 From the above it will be seen that the single-riveted joints have lost one-fifth of the actual strength of the plates, whilst the doubleriveted have retained their resisting powers unimpaired. These are important and convincing proofs of the superior value of the double joint ; and in all cases where strength is required, this description of joint should invariably be used.
Page 474 - ... by machine is considerable, we may fairly assume the following relative strengths as the value of plates with their riveted joints : — Taking the strength of the plate at .... 100 The strength of the double-riveted joint would then be 70 And the strength of the single-riveted joint...
Page 263 - ... oxide. At the excessive temperature that the metal has now acquired, the oxide, as soon as formed, undergoes fusion, and forms a powerful solvent of those earthy bases that are associated with the iron ; the violent ebullition which is going on mixes most intimately the scoria?

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