George Washington Grayson and the Creek Nation, 1843-1920

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University of Oklahoma Press, 1999 - Biography & Autobiography - 334 pages

A confederate soldier, pioneer merchant, rancher, newspaper publisher, and town builder, George Washington Grayson also served for six decades as a leader of the Creek Nation. His life paralleled the most tumultuous events in Creek Indian and Oklahoma history, from the aftermath of the Trail of Tears through World War I.

As a diplomat representing the Creek people, Grayson worked to shape Indian policy. As a cultural broker, he explained its ramifications to his people. A self-described progressive who advocated English education, constitutional government, and economic development, Grayson also was an Indian nationalist who appreciated traditional values. When the Creeks faced allotment and loss of sovereignty, Grayson sought ways to accommodate change without sacrificing Indian identity.

Mary Jane Warde bases her portrait of Grayson on a wealth of primary and secondary sources, including the extensive writings of Grayson himself.

 

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Contents

Driven up the Red Waters
3
The Grass on the Island
21
The Spirit of Our Fathers
53
Indian Capital and Indian Brains
86
All That Is Left for Our Children
121
Save What We May out of the Approaching Wreck
164
Fallen to the Mercy of Other Power
206
Nevertheless Intensely Indian
249
Abbreviations
255
Notes
257
Bibliography
305
Index
317
Copyright

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About the author (1999)

Mary Jane Warde is Indian Historian at the Oklahoma Historical Society.

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