Thomas Barclay (1728-1793): Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary

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Associated University Presse, 2008 - Biography & Autobiography - 407 pages
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"This is the first-ever biography of Thomas Barclay, the first American consul to serve the United States abroad and the man who, in 1786, successfully negotiated our first treaty with an Arab, African, or Muslim nation. It is the story of an Ulster-born immigrant building his fortune as a Philadelphia merchant in international trade, then losing it as he gives priority to his adopted country's fight to gain and build on independence. It tells how, after emigrating to Philadelphia in the 1760s, Barclay became a leading member of the Irish community, a successful merchant/ship owner, and political activist. This biography follows his move to France with his wife and three small children when the Continental Congress named him consul in 1781. There, before an American consular service existed, before Congress knew a consul from a consul general, Thomas Barclay did whatever was needed, wherever it was needed. To shipping, naval, and other tasks, Congress added an audit of American public expenditures in Europe since 1776. Then Jefferson and Adams added diplomacy in Barbary, where Barclay negotiated a rare tribute-free treaty of commerce and amity with the Sultan of Morocco. His personal relationships with Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson reveal as much about them as about him. On assignment for President Washington in 1793, he became the first American diplomat to die in a foreign country in the service of the United States."--BOOK JACKET.
 

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Contents

Prologue
23
Enterprising Immigrant
28
Political Activist
43
Help Wanted in France
56
Introduction to Americas European Affairs
74
Coping in Holland
89
Welcome Back to France
102
An Arduous Undertaking
116
Return to France
219
An Amicable Arrangement
233
President Washingtons Envoy
251
Epilogue
266
Thomas Barclay Family Chart
274
Sultan Sidi Muhammads August 27 1778 Declaration
275
Captain James Erwins Morocco Experience
278
Thomas Barclays Report on Morocco
279

Adjusting to Peace
134
Barbary Challenge
148
Official Business Takes Priority
158
Road to Morocco
172
America Morocco and Sidi Muhammad
189
Diplomat at Work
202
Abbreviations
291
Notes
294
Bibliography
359
Index
391
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