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Psychology and the scientific method
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answer assumption attitude scales average behaviour between-groups calculated chance Chapter characteristics coin column computed concurrent validity content validity correlation coefficient degrees of freedom difference equal error variance estimate example experiment experimental conditions experimental effect factor analysis Figure formula independent variable individual interval large number level of measurement level of significance manipulation matched measure median ment method negative normal distribution null hypothesis observed obtained one-tailed pairs parametric tests performance perimental person population positive possible predictive validity probability problem procedure psychology questions random error random sample randomly ratio raw scores reject the null relationship reliability coefficient represent responses sample means selection significance level social squares standard deviation standard error statements statistically significant subjects systematic Table technique theory tion two-tailed two-tailed test type I error variation