Subterranean ecosystems, Volume 2
The last 50 years of research on the subterranean biome has revealed considerable taxonomic and ecological diversity as well as unique lineages of organisms - even a new animal class - dependent on a variety of energy sources. During this time biospeleology has developed from a descriptive discipline to encompass the whole field of biological science. The marked change of living conditions in the subterranean realm relative to the surface environment, due to the complete lack of light, provides unique opportunities to test various hypotheses. This book shows for the first time the importance for the biosphere of a previously neglected biota. The types of animals and habitats found in subterranean ecosystems are described together with the geological formations in which they occur and their distribution on earth. The ecology of some subterranean terrestrial and aquatic systems are described together with subterranean ecosystems in different climatic zones. The nature of the adaptations to life in complete darkness, and to the often sparse and patchily distributed foods or various trophic origins, are described. A central part of the volume deals with the characteristics and process involved in the adaptation, speciation and evolution of subterranean animals. The volume concludes with a consideration of the conservation issues arising.
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PREFACE Chapter 9 ADAPTATIONS TO INTERSTITIAL
THE DIVERSITY OF THE KARSTIC AND Part V The Trophic Basis of Subsurface
by J V Ward F Malard J A Stanford and by P Gnaspini and E Trajano
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adaptation amphipods anchialine caves aquatic aquifer arthropods Astyanax Astyanax fasciatus bacteria bats beetles behavior Biol biological Biospeleology Boutin Cape Range carbon cave animals cave environment cave fauna cave fish cave populations cave systems cavernicolous Characidae chemoautotrophic Coineau colonization copepods crustaceans Culver Danielopol distribution diversity Ecology ecosystem Editors epigean evolution evolutionary eyes Frasassi freshwater gene genetic genus Gibert Grotta groundwater guano habitats harpacticoid Holsinger Howarth Humphreys hypogean Iliffe inhabiting input invertebrates Islands isopods isotopes Juberthie karst karstic Langecker larvae lava tubes limestone Mangalia marine metabolic morphological Movile Cave Niphargus occur organic matter Oromi ostracods oxygen Parzefall phylogenetic pigmentation Poulson reduced region regression Rhone river root mats Rouch salamanders samples Sarbu Sbordoni sediments souterrain speciation Speleol stream structure studies stygobionts stygobites Stygofauna subterranean sulfidic surface taxa temperature terrestrial troglobitic troglobitic species troglomorphic troglophilic trogloxenes tropical Western Australia Wilkens zone Zool