Petroleum Refining Processes
This work highlights contemporary approaches to resource utilization and provides comprehensive coverage of technological advances in residuum conversion. It illustrates state-of-the-art engineering methods for the refinement of heavy oils, bitumen, and other high-sulphur feedstocks.
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1 Definitions and Terminology
2 Occurrence and Availability
4 Testing and Evaluation
5 Reaction Stoichiometry
6 Chemical Kinetics
7 Thermochemistry and Chemical Equilibrium
8 Kinetic Measurements and Data Analysis
13 Pretreatment and Distillation
14 Thermal Cracking
15 Catalytic Cracking
18 The Next Generation Process
19 Product Improvement
20 Hydrogen Production
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acid adsorbed adsorption alkylation API gravity aromatic asphalt asphaltene ASTM bitumen boundary layer Carbon residue catalyst catalytic cracking catalytic reforming chemical reaction chemisorption coal coefﬁcient coke combustion components composition compounds concentration constant constituents conversion cracking process crude oil deasphalted oil deﬁned desulfurization distillation energy balance equation expressed feed feedstock Figure ﬁrst ﬂash ﬂow ﬂuid catalytic cracking ﬂux fractions fuel oil function gas oil gases gasoline heat transfer heater heavy feedstocks heavy oil higher boiling Hydrocarbon Processing hydrocarbons hydrocracking hydrodesulfurization hydrogen hydrogen sulﬁde hydrotreating increase kinetics liquid mass material metals molar molecular weight molecules naphtha naphthenes nickel nitrogen octane number oleﬁns oxidation parafﬁns particle petroleum pressure process Fig ratio reactant reaction rate recycle reﬁnery regenerator removal separation signiﬁcant solid solvent species speciﬁc Speight steady-state stream sulfur surface tar sand temperature thermal cracking tion tower turbulent vacuum residuum vanadium vapor velocity visbreaking viscosity yield zeolite
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