Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values

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Springer Science & Business Media, May 31, 2002 - Computers - 404 pages
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The study of diagnostic, visual, spatial, analogical, and temporal reasoning has demonstrated that there are many ways of performing intelligent and creative reasoning that cannot be described with the help of traditional notions of reasoning, such as classical logic. Understanding the contribution of modeling practices to discovery and conceptual change in science requires expanding scientific reasoning to include complex forms of creative reasoning that are not always successful and can lead to incorrect solutions. The study of these heuristic ways of reasoning is situated at the crossroads of philosophy, artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and logic; that is, at the heart of cognitive science. There are several key ingredients common to the various forms of model-based reasoning considered in this book. The term 'model' comprises both internal and external representations. The models are intended as interpretations of target physical systems, processes, phenomena, or situations. The models are retrieved or constructed on the basis of potentially satisfying salient constraints of the target domain. Moreover, in the modeling process, various forms of abstraction are used. Evaluation and adaptation take place in the light of structural, causal, and/or functional constraints. Model simulation can be used to produce new states and enable evaluation of behaviors and other factors.The various contributions of the book are written by interdisciplinary researchers who are active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology: the most recent results and achievements in the topics above are illustrated in the chapters.
 

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Contents

MetaphorBased Values in Scientific Models
1
The Case of Johannes Kepler
21
Model Experiments and Models in Experiments
41
Models Simulations and Experiments
59
Calibration of Models in Experiments
75
The Development of Scientific Taxonomies
95
Production Science and Epistemology An Overview on New Models and Scenarios
113
Modeling Practices and Tradition
127
Models as Parts of Distributed Cognitive Systems
227
Conceptual Models Inquiry and the Problem of Deriving Normative Claims from a Naturalistic Base
243
A Computational Model of Motion and Visual Analogy
259
ModelBased Reasoning and Similarity in the World
275
Michael Faradays Search for the Optical Effects of Gold
287
Epistemic Mediators and ModelBased Discovery in Science
305
Deterministic Models and the Unimportance of the Inevitable
331
Mental Models in Conceptual Development
353

Analogies in Neural Networks Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms
147
Perceptual Simulation in Analogical Problem Solving
167
Building Demand Models to Improve Environmental Policy Process
191
Toward a Computational Model of Hypothesis Formation and Model Building in Science
209
Modeling Core Knowledge and Practices in a Computational Approach to Innovation Process
369
Author Index
391
Subject Index
399
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