Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Physical and Numerical AspectsThis book provides an introductorylevel exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics, including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

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Contents
II Rotation Effects  203 
III Stratification Effects  345 
IV Combined Rotation and Stratification Effects  471 
V Special Topics  625 
VI Web site Information  761 
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Common terms and phrases
advection amplitude approximation atmosphere average baroclinic baroclinic instability barotropic beta plane bottom boundary conditions calculate coefficients conservation constant continuity equation convection convergence coordinate Coriolis force Coriolis parameter defined density depth derivative diffusion discretization dispersion relation displacement domain earth’s Ekman Ekman layer error FIGURE finite fluid dynamics fluid parcels flux forecast frequency function geophysical fluid dynamics geostrophic governing equations gradient grid points horizontal inertial initial conditions instability integration internal waves Kelvin wave kinetic energy length scale linear matrix meridional method mode motions nonlinear Numerical Exercise obtain ocean oscillations parameter particle perturbation physical planetary planetary waves potential energy potential vorticity pressure propagation radius rotation scheme Section shear simulation solution spatial speed stability step stratification streamfunction surface temperature thermocline tion turbulent upwelling values variables vector vertical velocity vortex wavelength wavenumber waves wind zero zonal