The Spanish Dependencies in South America: An Introduction to the History of Their Civilisation, Volume 2

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Harper, 1914 - South America
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Page 365 - ... that Venezuela was especially vulnerable on three sides : on the northern coast, on the Orinoco, and on the shores of Lake Maracaibo. But it was not until the latter part of the eighteenth century that the Crown found itself under the necessity of constructing fortifications and providing otherwise directly for defence.
Page 390 - For food they killed in the afternoon one of the animals that had been driven along with the caravan for this purpose. Each person took the part he wished, fastened it to a pole, one end of which was fixed in the ground, and allowed it to hang over the fire ; and ate it with only the outside scorched. " They put the head of the animal into the live coals, with the hair and skin on, until the skin cracked with the heat, and then they said it was cooked. They observed this same system always. All the...
Page 370 - ... interests of the others. The governors, or corregidors, were accustomed to assume much power in the municipal governments of the cities where they resided. This was a direct interference with the autonomy of the cabildo, or ayuntamiento, or the local organization under whatever name it was formed. The laws of the Indies, in keeping with their regard for details in general, prescribed the forms * to be observed in founding a town.
Page 207 - In keeping with this power, the bull of Julius II, concerning the patronage, conceded primarily that in the regions discovered, or which in the future might be discovered, no churches, monasteries, or pious places might be established without the consent of the king. It conceded also the power to present suitable persons for the metropolitan churches and the other cathedrals 1 The bull of Alexander VI, May 4, 1493 ; Peschel, Die Theilung der Erde unter Papst Alexander VI and Julius II, 13-15. In...
Page 398 - As the natives of those, your Majesty's dominions, are equally deserving of filling the principal offices of their own country, it appears reasonable, that they should not be divested of all management in their own homes. I am fully persuaded, that in those countries there are many discontented persons, not because they are under the control of Spain; but because they are cast down, and tyrannized by the very persons, who are sent over to exercise the duties of the judicature. Let your Majesty give...
Page 398 - ... all 754, only 18 were creoles. There was, however, no lack of men of this class fitted to perform the duties of these offices; for many had been educated in Europe, and even those who had resorted to the colonial colleges were sufficiently well trained to administer successfully the local affairs of the colonies. But they lacked the influence necessary to obtain these positions. The gravest evil resulting from this exclusion of Americans was not merely that the native inhabitants of European...
Page 229 - According to the canon law they were not able to hold beneficed curacies, but the extent of the American field, and the limited number of the clergy available to occupy it, induced Leo X, Adrian VI, Paul III, Clement VIII, and Pius V to permit them to become parish priests. Under this order a very large number of the parishes in America in the sixteenth century were occupied by friars. But in the middle of the eighteenth century, this privilege was withdrawn, leaving them only two parishes in a conventual...
Page 370 - Indies, in keeping with their regard for details in general, prescribed the forms to be observed in founding a town. In the English colonies of America the town grew up to meet the needs of the inhabitants of the country ; but in the Spanish colonies the population of the country grew to meet the needs of the towns. The primary plan of the English colonist was to live on the land, and to derive his support from its cultivation. The primary plan of the Spanish colonist was to live in the town, and...
Page 409 - These expectations constitute an important force in the growth of the character of the community. The colonists of the New World became mentally unlike their kindred who remained in Europe, partly because their minds were dominated by expectations peculiar to the emigrant and partly because in their new environment their minds embraced hopes and expectations which had no influence on the members of the Old World communities. Under the influence of different expectations, furthermore, the characters...
Page 150 - ... collected round the habitation of a missionary. Their number has considerably augmented, but the sphere of their ideas is not enlarged. They have progressively lost that vigour of character, and that natural vivacity, which in every state of society are the...

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