Stream Ecology: Structure and function of running waters

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 17, 2007 - Science - 436 pages
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Stream Ecology by Allan and Castillo is extensively revised and updated from the successful first edition to include major developments over the past decade. Although the subject matter is relatively advanced, this book has been written with the express goal of being accessible to students with only modest backgrounds in ecology and aquatic sciences. The First Edition was widely praised for its readability, and that emphasis is retained. The second edition opens with a new introductory chapter that sets the stage for what follows. The treatment of geomorphology and hydrology are greatly expanded from the first edition, and have been split into two, more substantial chapters. Basal energy resources, trophic roles and food web interactions are retained but thoroughly updated, particularly to include recent advances in microbial ecology and the synergies between producers and decomposers. The discussion of species interactions has been re-organized so that modern topics receive more emphasis, including trophic cascades, subsidies and food web structure. Chapters on organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling have been substantially re-written to reflect the enormous growth in knowledge of stream metabolism and nutrient processes, the core of ecosystem functioning. The closing chapter on human impacts summarizes the status of river ecosystems and principal threats, and new material that describes advances in river management including the science of environmental flows, the successes and failures of river restoration, and the potential for ecosystem-based catchment management.

 

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Contents

9122 Functional responses
202
913 Disturbance and herbivory
203
914 Topdown and bottomup effects on periphyton
204
92 Predation
205
921 The predatorprey interaction
206
9212 Invertebrate predators
207
922 Prey defenses
209
923 Effects of predation on prey populations
210

21 The Water Cycle
14
211 Global watercycle
16
213 Surface versus groundwater pathways
18
22 Streamflow
19
221 The hydrograph
21
23 Flow Variation
22
231 The likelihood of extreme events
23
232 Effect of land use on streamflow
24
233 The flow regime
25
234 Environmental flows
30
24 Summary
31
Fluvial geomorphology
33
31 The Drainage Network
34
32 The Stream Channel
35
321 Hydraulic geometry
36
322 Sinuosity
38
323 Poolriffle features
39
33 Sediments and their Transport
41
333 Sediment load
44
334 Factors influencing sediment concentrations and loads
46
34 Fluvial Processes along the River Continuum
49
341 Fluvial processes and channel morphologies
50
342 Channel dynamics over longtime frames
53
344 Riverine landscape diversity
55
Streamwater chemistry
57
42 Major Dissolved Constituents of River Water
59
421 Variability in ionic concentrations
62
422 The dissolved load
64
423 Chemical classification of river water
65
44 Influence of Chemical Factors on the Biota
68
442 Salinization
69
443 Effects of acidity on stream ecosystems
70
45 Summary
74
The abiotic environment
75
51 The Flow Environment
76
511 Channel and nearbed flow environments
79
513 Quantification of flow conditions
81
514 Influence of flow on the biota
82
52 Substrate
88
521 Inorganic substrates
89
522 Organic substrates
90
523 The influence of substrate on stream assemblages
92
53 Temperature
94
531 Influence of thermal regime on the biota
98
54 Summary
102
Primary producers
105
611 Benthic algal distribution and abundance
107
6111 Light
109
6112 Nutrients
112
6114 Substrate
120
612 Temporal and spatial variation in benthic algae
121
613 Primary production by benthic algae
122
614 Fate of benthic primary production
124
62 Macrophytes
125
621 Limiting factors for macrophytes
126
622 Macrophyte production and its fate
128
63 Phytoplankton
129
631 Limiting factors for phytoplankton
130
632 Primary production by river phytoplankton
132
64 Summary
133
Detrital energy sources
135
711 Stages in the breakdown and decay of CPOM
139
712 The influence of detritivores on litter decomposition
144
713 Other CPOM
146
72 Fine Particulate Organic Matter
147
721 FPOM originating from leaf decomposition
148
722 Other sources of FPOM
149
73 Dissolved Organic Matter
150
731 Uptake of DOC
152
732 Biofilms
154
733 Bacterioplankton
158
74 Summary
160
Trophic relationships
163
81 Microbial Food Webs
164
82 Invertebrate Feeding Roles
167
821 Consumers of CPOM
168
822 Consumers of FPOM
173
823 Herbivory
177
824 Predaceous invertebrates
180
83 Vertebrates in Lotic Food Webs
183
831 Fishes
184
832 Other vertebrates
188
84 Secondary Production
190
85 Summary
195
Species interactions
197
912 Grazer effects on periphyton
199
9121 Structural responses
200
9231 Nonconsumptive effects of predation
211
9232 Experimental scale
213
923 Trophic cascades
214
93 Competition
217
9312 Invertebrates
218
9313 Fishes
219
932 Experimental studies of competition
222
94 Summary
225
Lotic communities
229
101 Regional Patterns in Species Diversity
230
1012 Latitudinal gradients
231
102 Local Diversity
233
103 Community Structure
238
1031 Consistency in assemblage composition
239
1032 The habitat template and species traits
240
1033 Disturbance
242
10331 Specieslevel effects of disturbance
244
10332 Systemwide effects
245
104 Food Webs
246
1041 Resource subsidies
249
1042 Landscape position
250
105 Community Composition and Ecosystem Function
251
106 Summary
253
Nutrient dynamics
255
111 Sources and Cycling of Nitrogen and Phosphorus
256
1111 Nitrogen sources and quantities
257
1112 Nitrogen cycling
259
1113 Phosphorus sources and quantities
261
1114 Phosphorus cycling
264
112 Transport and Spiraling
265
1122 Nutrient spiraling
267
1123 Methodological issues
268
113 Factors Influencing Nutrient Dynamics
269
1132 Hydrologic processes
270
1133 Biotic controls of nutrient cycling
272
11331 Assimilatory uptake
273
11332 Dissimilatory transformations
275
11333 Role of consumers
277
114 Nutrient Budgets
279
1141 Nitrogen
280
1142 Phosphorus
283
115 Summary
284
Stream ecosystem metabolism
287
121 Autochthonous Production
289
1212 Macrophytes
290
122 Allochthonous Inputs
291
1222 Fine particulate organic matter
292
1223 Dissolved organic matter
294
123 Processes
297
1232 Coarse particulate organic matter dynamics
298
1233 Fine particulate organic matter dynamics
299
1234 Benthic organic matter retention
300
1235 Dissolved organic matter dynamics
302
124 Stream Ecosystem Metabolism
303
1242 The PR ratio
308
1243 Stream ecosystem efficiency
313
1244 The fate of organic matter
314
125 Summary
315
Human impacts
317
131 Freshwater Biodiversity
318
1311 Species imperilment
319
1312 Imperilment of major groups
320
132 Threats to Rivers
321
13211 Altered hydrology
323
13212 Channelization
327
13213 Land use
330
1322 Nonindigenous species
333
13222 Invasion success
334
13223 Impacts of invasive species
337
1323 Pollution
339
13233 Atmospheric deposition
341
1324 Overexploitation
342
1325 Climate change
345
133 River Management
347
1331 Bioassessment
348
1332 Restoration and recovery of lotic ecosystems
350
1333 Protected areas
354
134 Summary
356
The foundations of stream ecology
359
141 The Spatial Framework
360
142 Community Assembly is Determined by the Species Pool Habitat Sorting and Species Interactions
362
143 Streams are Transporting Systems
364
144 Primary Production and Allochthonous Detritus are Basal Resources in Lotic Ecosystems
366
145 Rivers are the Product of their Landscapes
369
References
373
Subject Index
429
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 418 - LR (1987) Effects of herbivore type and density on taxonomic structure and physiognomy of algal assemblages in laboratory streams.
Page 425 - Hendricks. 1987. Temperature patterns within the hyporheic zone of a northern Michigan River. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 6:85-9 1 . Whitman, RL, and WJ Clark.
Page 418 - CD (1986) Effects of current velocity and light energy on the structure of periphyton assemblages in laboratory streams.
Page 411 - Pringle, CM, and JA Bowers. 1984. An in situ substratum fertilization technique: diatom colonization on nutrientenriched sand, substrata.

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