Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-optical Systems
The modulation transfer function (MTF) is used to specify the image quality achieved by an imaging system. It is particularly useful in analyzing situations in which several independent subsystems are combined. This tutorial provides the background information necessary for the application of MTF techniques to performance specification, estimation, and characterization of optical and electro-optical systems. Readers are introduced to the basic assumptions of linear systems theory, including the concept of spatial frequency, and the relationship between impulse response, resolution, MTF, OTF, PTF and CTF. Practical measurement and testing issues, coupled with several concrete examples, are presented.
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aberrations adapted from Ref aliasing artifacts aliasing frequency angular spatial frequency anti-aliasing filter aperture autocorrelation auxiliary optics bar-target better SNR boost filter calculation coherence collimator configuration convolution crosstalk cutoff frequency cy/mm defocus detector array detector footprint diffraction MTF diffraction-limited direction distance electronics ESF data Figure finite flux four-bar Fourier transform fundamental fundamental frequency G. D. Boreman image data image irradiance image plane image quality image-plane image-quality imaging system impulse response infrared input irradiance distribution laser lens line source linear measure MTF modulation depth Modulation transfer function motion MTF contributions MTF curve MTF measurements MTF test MTFA multiply noise Nyquist frequency object space one-dimensional optical system optical transfer function phase pixel point source PSF test sampling interval sampling MTF sampling sites scanning seen in Fig sensor setup shift invariance sinusoidal spatial-frequency SPIE Strehl ratio subsystem target two-dimensional typically waveform width zero