Endocrines and Osmoregulation: A Comparative Account in Vertebrates

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 12, 2002 - Science - 292 pages
1 Review
The opportunity to prepare a second edition of a book that was originally written 30 years ago has provided me with both a challenge and a source of pleas over ure; the former as it needed to be spatially constrained within its original limits. Nevertheless, over 1000 references have been added. I must apologize to the many biologists whose contributions could not be included. I have attempted to keep the original format and historical perspective. The information has been princi pally described within the context of each phyletic group of the vertebrates and their habitats. Each chapter is reasonably self-contained, but appreciation of mate rial in later chapters, as often indicated, can be amplified by reference to Chap ters 1 and 2. Information that was provided in tables in the first edition has now often been summarized in the text. Reviewing the work of earlier contributions to this field of study has evoked many pleasant memories of friends and acquain tances, some deceased, events and occasions. It has been a particular pleasure to perceive the consequences of such observations and know some of the answers to the questions that they raised. A new generation of such questions has now emerged, which is one of the reasons for preparing this summary. I would like to thank Professor Don Bradshaw for suggesting that this book may be welcome and Springer-Verlag for making it possible.
 

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Contents

Osmotic Problems of Vertebrates
1
2 The Osmotic Anatomy of the Vertebrates
4
3 Osmotic Exchanges with the Environment
8
34 Metabolism and Oxygen Consumption
9
42 Facilitated Diffusion
10
44 Evaporation
11
5 Transporter Proteins Involved in Solute and Water Movements Across Cell Membranes
12
6 Biological Structures Participating in Fluid Exchange
20
2 Conservation and Excretion of Salts
122
21 Kidneys
123
22 Nasal Salt Glands
124
3 Conservation of Water and Salt by the Cloaca and Large Intestine
126
4 Sources of Water and Salts
128
5 Reproduction Migration and Osmoregulation
130
6 Osmoregulation and Hormones in FreeLiving Birds
132
The Reptiles
133

62 Capillaries
22
63 Skin
23
64 Water Loss from the Tetrapod Respiratory Tract
24
65 Gills
25
66 Gut
28
67 Urinary Bladder
31
68 Salt Glands
32
69 The Kidneys
34
693 Physiology
36
694 Regulation
38
7 Relationships of Nitrogen Metabolism to Osmoregulation
39
8 Osmoregulation and the Evolution of Vertebrates
41
The Vertebrate Endocrine System
45
11 Overview
46
13 Morphology of the Endocrine Glands
48
14 Synthesis of Hormones
49
15 Release of Hormones
50
16 Hormones in the Blood
51
18 Mechanisms of Hormone Action
52
2 Osmoregulatory Hormones
57
21 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
60
22 The ReninAngiotensin System RAS
66
23 Adrenocorticosteroids
68
24 Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
71
25 The Natriuretic Peptide Hormones
72
26 Adrenomedullin
74
27 Guanylin Peptides
75
28 The Thyroid Hormones
76
29 The Urotensins
77
3 Mechanisms of the Hormonal Regulation of Water and Salt Across Epithelial Membranes
78
32 Mineralocorticoid Hormones
81
The Mammals
85
2 Osmoregulation
86
21 Water Loss
87
212 Respiratory
88
274 Faecal Water Loss
90
22 Salt Loss
91
223 The Kidney
93
23 Accumulation of Water and Salts
94
24 Effects of Dehydration on the Body Fluids
96
3 The Monotremes EggLaying Mammals
97
4 The Marsupials Pouched Mammals
98
5 The Placental Mammals
105
The Birds
113
1 Water Loss
116
11 Evaporative
117
12 Urinary and Faecal
119
13 Renal Water Conservation and the Neurohypophysis
120
1 Water Exchanges
137
12 Urinary and Faecal Water Loss
139
121 Role of the Kidney
140
122 Role of the CloacaColon Complex
142
123 Role of the Urinary Bladder
143
2 Salt Exchange
144
22 Kidney
145
23 Cloaca and Urinary Bladder
147
24 Cephalic Salt Glands
148
3 Accumulation of Water and Salts
151
4 Reproduction and Osmoregulation
152
The Amphibia
155
1 Water Exchange
163
112 In Air
167
12 The Kidney
168
13 The Urinary Bladder
171
14 The Large Intestine Colon
172
2 Salt Exchange
173
21 Skin
174
22 The Kidney
177
23 The Urinary Bladder
178
24 The Large Intestine Colon
180
3 Nitrogen Metabolism
181
4 Reproduction
182
5 Accumulation of Water and Salt
184
The Fishes
187
1 The Piscine Endocrines
190
11 Neurohypophysial Hormones
191
13 The Renin Angiotensin System
192
14 Natriuretic Peptides
193
16 Thyroid Hormone
194
18 The Growth HormoneProlactin Family
195
2 Water Exchanges
197
21 The Skin and Gills
198
22 The Gut
199
23 The Kidney
202
3 Salt Exchanges
206
31 The Skin and Gills
207
32 The Kidney
217
33 The Urinary Bladder
218
34 The Gut
219
4 Nitrogen Metabolism and Osmoregulation
220
5 Osmoregulation and the Endocrines of Sharks and Rays
221
6 The Hagfish
228
References
233
Index
285
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Page 281 - AN RICHARDS. 1937. The total molecular concentration and the chloride concentration of fluid from different segments of the renal tubule of amphibia.
Page 234 - Solvent drag on non-electrolytes during osmotic flow through isolated toad skin and its response to antidiuretic hormone.
Page 242 - S. (1989) A membrane form of guanylate cyclase is an atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. Nature (London) 338, 78-83 21.

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