Practical Nitriding and Ferritic Nitrocarburizing (Google eBook)

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ASM International, 2003 - TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING - 256 pages
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Contents

Oxynitriding
116
Operating the Fluid Bed for Nitriding
117
Distortion
119
Shape Distortion
120
Distortion in Nitriding
121
Stock Removal Prior to Nitriding
122
Steels For Nitriding
125
Requirements for a Nitriding Steel
127

Concluding Remarks
22
How Does the Nitriding Process Work?
23
The Liberation of Nitrogen
24
Dissociation of the Gas at the Selected Nitriding Temperature
25
Why Ammonia Is Used
26
Distortion
27
Preheat Treatment
28
Microstructures of Nitrided Iron and Steel
31
Influence of Carbon on the Compound Zone
32
What Happens Below the Compound Zone?
35
Calculating the Compound Zone Thickness
36
Furnace Equipment and Control Systems
39
Essential Furnace Design Criteria
40
Types of Nitriding Furnaces
42
Determining Appropriate Furnace Design
43
Retort Maintenance
44
Safety Precautions When Using Ammonia
46
Furnace Heating
47
Process Control and Instrumentation
49
Salt Bath Nitriding
53
Types of Salt Bath Nitriding Processes
54
Salt Bath Nitriding Equipment and Procedure
55
Bath Replacement
58
Bath Maintenance
61
Operating the Salt Bath
62
Design Parameters for Furnace Equipment
63
Control of the Compound Zone or White Layer
65
A Test to Determine the Presence of the White Layer
66
Other Methods for Controlling Compound Zone Formation
67
Case Depth of Nitriding
68
Ion Nitriding
71
How the Ion Nitriding Process Works
72
Glow Discharge Characteristics
74
Process Control
75
Other Uses for Plasma Processing
76
What Happens in the Ion Nitriding Process
77
Reactions at the Steel Surface
78
Surface Stability
80
Degradation of Surface Finish
81
Control of the Compound Zone
82
Process Gases
83
Process Parameters
84
Advantages
85
Oxynitriding
86
Ion Nitriding Equipment
89
HotWall Pulsed dc Plasma Nitriding
94
Work Cooling after Plasma Nitriding
101
Other Considerations for Ion Nitriding Equipment and Processing
102
Advantages of Plasma Nitriding
107
Nitriding in Fluidized Beds
111
Nitriding in the FluidizedBed Furnace
114
Can Stainless Steels Be Nitrided?
129
Plasma Nitride Case Depths
136
Control of the Process Gas in Plasma Conditions
139
Analysis by Mass Spectrometry
140
Difficulties Associated with Gas Analysis
141
Kinetic Studies
142
Experimental Parameters
145
Conclusions
150
Processing with Nitriding
153
HighSpeed Steel Cutters
156
Gears
158
Pure Irons
159
LowAlloy Steels
160
Higher Alloyed Steels
161
StopOff Procedures for Selective Nitriding
163
Methods for Selective Salt Bath Nitriding
164
Examination of the Nitrided Case
167
Etching of the Sample
177
Safety Precautions
179
Optical Light Microscopy
180
Troubleshooting
185
Salt Bath Nitriding
187
Ion Nitriding
188
What Is Meant by Ferritic Nitrocarburizing?
193
Early History of Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
195
Why Ferritic Nitrocarburize?
198
Training
199
Salt Bath Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
201
LowCyanide Salt Bath Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
202
Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing plus Post Treatment
207
Kolene NuTride Process
208
Other Methods for Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing
217
Gaseous Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
219
Process Principles
220
Gaseous Supply
221
Industrial Applications
222
Safety Considerations
223
Process Technique
224
Typical Results
227
Conclusions
229
Equipment for Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
231
Atmosphere Furnace Equipment
233
Ferritic Oxynitrocarburizing
238
Preparation for Ferritic Nitrocarburizing
241
Enhanced Plasma Cleaning
243
Evaluating the Process
245
What If the Formed Case Has Low Hardness Values?
246
Corrosion
249
Index
251
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