A dramatic transformation has begun in the way scholars think about human nature. Political scientists, psychologists, economists, and evolutionary biologists are beginning to reject the view that human affairs are shaped almost exclusively by self-interest—a view that came to dominate social science in the last three decades.
In Beyond Self-Interest, leading social scientists argue for a view of individuals behavior and social organization that takes into account the powerful motivations of duty, love, and malevolence. Economists who go beyond "economic man," psychologists who go beyond stimulus-response, evolutionary biologists who go beyond the "selfish gene," and political scientists who go beyond the quest for power come together in this provocative and important manifesto.
The essays trace, from the ancient Greeks to the present, the use of self-interest to explain political life. They investigate the differences between self-interest and the motivations of duty and love, showing how these motivations affect behavior in "prisoners' dilemma" interactions. They generate evolutionary models that explain how altruistic motivations escape extinction.
They suggest ways to model within one individual the separate motivations of public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit in citizen and legislative behavior, and demonstrate that the view of democracy in existing Constitutional interpretations is not based on self-interest. They advance both human evil and mothering as alternatives to self-interest, this last in a penetrating feminist critique of the "contract" model of human interaction.
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The Rise and Fall of SelfInterest in the Explanation of Political Life
Dimensions of the Problem
Rational Fools A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory
Selfishness and Altruism
Varieties of Altruism
An Ecological Niche for Altruism
Congress and Public Spirit A Commentary
Political SelfInterest in Constitutional Law
Empathy and International Regimes
Dual Utilities and Rational Choice
Expanding the Range of Formal Modeling
A Theory of Moral Sentiments
Cooperation for the Benefit of Us Not Me or My Conscience
Culture and Cooperation
On the Relation of Altruism and SelfInterest
SelfInterest in Americans Political Opinions
Justice SelfInterest and the Legitimacy of Legal and Political Authority
Deregulation and the Politics of Ideas in Congress
action Adam Smith altruism argue argument assumption behavior beliefs benefits chap child citizens clause commitment conception concern conflict conformist transmission Congress constitutional context contract costs cultural David Hume decisions defection defectors deregulation dilemma discussion dormant commerce clause dual-utilities economic economists egoistic electoral Ellie empathy Essays example experience explain fair favor feel frequency of cooperators genetic group selection human Hume important incentives individual interaction interest irrational issues J. S. Mill Jon Elster judgments legislative Mansbridge maximize moral mothering person motives naked preferences nomic normative one's outcomes payoff percent predict principle Prisoner's Dilemma problem procedures public value question rational choice rational choice theory reciprocal altruism reciprocity reflect relation between mothering response result role rule Sears self-interest self-interest effects selfish sense social social contract society subjects subpopulation suggests theorists theory tion traditional University unselfishness utility vote welfare
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The Deliberative Practitioner: Encouraging Participatory Planning Processes
Limited preview - 1999