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Primitive Roots and Indices
Power Residues Quadratic Reciprocity and Sum of Squares
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according appear appertains assume chapter coefficient congruence conjecture consider corresponding decomposition defined definition denote the number determined direct distinct divide elements equal equation Evidently exactly example Exercises exist expression fact follows formula function given gives graph hand Hence holds identity implies indices k-ic residues largest lattice points least lemma manner Math matrix means method modulo multiplicative natural numbers necessarily Note number of partitions obtain odd prime particular partitions of n permutation polynomial positive integers potp powers prime primitive divisor primitive root problem Proc Proof properties prove quadratic residue reader readily reduced relation Replacing representation represented result runs satisfy side solutions squares summands summits symbol theorem theorem follows unique values write written zero