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AAAa aAAo adverb Aesch Aeschin aorist aorist indicative apodosis Attic Greek avrbv avrov conditional relative conditional sentence construction dependent clause direct form examples express final clauses final particles future conditions future indicative Gorg Hell Herodotus Homer IIpos imperative imperfect implied indirect discourse indirect question infinitive interrogative irpiv irplv Isoc Kara leading verb meaning negative noun object clauses occurs original ov pi Ov yap ovk dv ovSi oVtos oVws parataxis participle past tenses Phaed Plat pluperfect potential indicative potential optative present or past protasis quoted ravra refers relative clause represents secondary tenses sense sometimes Soph subjunctive supposition Thuc Thucydides tlvai tovto ttjv unreal condition verbs of fearing viii wish Xenophon xvii xviii xxii xxiii xxiv
Page 53 - ... occurrences. The prevailing view is, if we except certain monographs upon the subject, best set forth by Goodwin in his Moods and Tenses, §§ 155, 156, 157, and I accordingly make the presentation there given the basis of my remarks. Goodwin explains this use of the aorist by saying that it gives "a more vivid statement of general truths by employing a distinct case or several distinct cases in the past to represent (as it were) all possible cases, and implying that what has occurred is likely...
Page 145 - TO FACT. 1397. When the protasis states a present or past supposition, implying that the condition is not or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses of the indicative are used in both protasis and apodosis. The apodosis has the adverb av. The imperfect here refers to present time or to an act as going on or repeated in past time, the aorist to a simple occurrence in past time, and the (rare) pluperfect to an act completed in past or present time. -Eg...
Page 168 - In general suppositions, the apodosis expresses a customary or repeated action or a general truth, and the protasis refers in a general way to any one of a class of acts.
Page 387 - ¡a¡ ката/Зi/oe i is do not come down, there is great diversity of opinion as to the manner in which these meanings are obtained from the Greek expressions, and still greater as to the origin of the constructions themselves. Most scholars have explained expressions of denial with où...
Page viii - whose writings have thrown light upon most of the dark places in Greek Syntax.
Page 145 - With Supposition contrary to Fact. § 222. When the protasis states a present or past supposition, implying that the condition is not or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses of the indicative are used in both protasis and apodosis. The apodosis takes the adverb av.
Page 382 - There is, in fact, nothing in the earliest employment of these modes to prove that they might not all be specialized uses of forms originally equivalent — having, for instance, a general future meaning.
Page 395 - The second person singular of this future with ov /xi/ was used by the dramatists as a prohibition, without abandoning the sense which the future can always have in both positive and negative commands. In these prohibitions the future indicative, in which they had their origin, is generally used ; but the subjunctive occasionally occurs, being analogous to the ordinary aorist subjunctive with...
Page 163 - The future as an emphatic form is especially common, when the condition contains a strong appeal to the feelings or a threat or a warning' — GOODWIN, Moods and Tenses, § 447.
Page 391 - But for the eight cases of independent fir) that have been quoted, we should never know that the construction existed between Homer and Plato. We have good ground for believing that it remained as a colloquial idiom in the language, though it seldom appeared in literature until Plato revived it and restored it to common use as a half-sarcastic form of expressing mildly a disagreeable truth. In Plato the construction is not confined to this peculiar sense, for we find cases in which honest apprehension...