de Portola, the Governor of California, and Father Jnnipcro Serra, the President of the Franciscan Missions. Their plans included the"establishment of Mis>ions, the erection' of Presidios or garrisons, and later the founding of Pueblos or towns, all joined together by a continuous road. There soon arose about these settlements a picturesque adobe and ranchero civilization unequalled for local color, religious fervor and romantic life by any other colony ever established in the United States.

The highway along which this picturesque civilization centered was "El Camino Real,'' The King's Highway, the Royal Road, the recognized route of travel when California was a part of Spain. Camino Real commenced at San Diego and led from Mission to Mission to Pueblo or Presidio and landed at San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, about forty miles north of San Francisco. So far as surroundings would permit, the life and conditions along this road were but a reflection of the life and conditions in distant Spain. There, in early days, grand palaces had been built in the southern part of the Empire and each was connected by a magnificent pathway that passed over the Pyrenees,

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skirted southern France and the shores of Italy ending at the Eternal City of Rome. After the fall of the Roman Empire these pathways were neglected, except in Spain, where the wars with the Moors made them a necessity. With the invention of the carreta the pathways of Spain were widened, graded and made into excellent roads—smooth and fit for the cumbersome, lumbering carreta. The improvements were made by the Crown; special laws were enacted for the protection of travelers and for the good preservation of these roads which were called Carretaras, and by the direction of the King were set aside as Camino Reales, or Royal Roads, and were under the surveillance of special guards.

In the seventeenth century the Caminos Reales of Spain were the envy of the world. They were beautified by trees, enhanced by picturesque ventas and enriched with national and memorial monuments. With the discovery of America, Spain gave to her colony of California the attractive and picturesque system of civilization that evolved the chain of twenty-one Missions, three Pueblos and four Presidios, all linked together by a Camino Real, or Royal Road. In place of ventas, Missions were built and the road that joined them was embellished by the unfettered beauties of luxuriant sylva, flora and wild vegetation varied with silver trail of waterfall and deep green-blue of billowy sea.

When the first expedition for the settlement of California left San Diego for Monterey, Father Juan Crespi, the Franciscan friar, was entrusted with the important duty of recording the route. His diary and notes prove the course they took, the camps they made, the landmarks noted and in fact make it possible for us to establish the exact itinerary of the people who blazed the first trail through the wilderness of the Far West. This was in 1769; the expedition was absent

six months and though they were un-
able to find the Port of Monterey
they made investigations as to the land
resources and the
sites for future
Missions and
towns. The fol-
lowing year the
same men retraced
this route and were
able to locate the
Port of Monterey,
and made further
valuable investiga-
tions. After the
founding of the
second Mission,
that of Monterey,
orders were given
to open up and
keep in repair a
road for transpor-
tation of supplies
and for traffic be-
tween San Diego Mission Dolores, San Francisco, California
and Monterey. As

each succeeding Mission was established
the duty of maintaining the road fell
to those Missions which it directly con-
nected. Indians were employed con-
stantly upon the task and were paid
from the treasury the same as for other
work and were given a home and board
at the Mission. In time portions of El
Camino Real became beautiful, an ex-
cellent highway, and in the project to


revive the sentiment of this historic road there is the opportunity to make of it a Rambla, such as they had in Spain, with long vistas of California's glorious trees or smaller groups of radiant arbor trees, varied by hedges of Castilian roses or flowering cacti, relieved by memorial monuments and fountains.

The work of restoration has so far advanced that El Camino Real is now accepted as the main highway from San Diego to San Francisco and it has been improved and made the State Highway by the State Highway Commission. It is Route No. 2 of California's splendid system of state highways. It passes through fourteen of the coast counties of California and through the county seats and largest towns of each of these counties as well as pausing at each of. the old Franciscan Missions. It is a continuous road over seven hundred miles in length and passes through scenes of varied

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beauty and interest ranging from sun-kissed hills to snow-crowned mountains, from foaming breakers to expansive fields of glistening grain, from miles of orange and lemon orchards through miles of grapes and beans and beets.

It's a long roa<I and sunny, it's

the fairest in the world, There are peaks that rise above

it, in their snowy mantles


And it leads from the mountains through a hedge of chap arral

Down to the waters where the sea gulls call.

It's a long road and sunny, it's

a long road and old, And the brown padres made it

for the flocks of the fold: They made it for the sandals of

the Binner folk that trod From the fields in the open to

the shelter-house of God.

This is our El Camino Real. We have marked it with four hundred Mission Bell Guide Posts, each one bearing a sign directing the traveler to the next Mission and also to the next town, thereby serv ing the dual purpose of an historic mark


Mission Bell Guide-post Marking El Camino Real

■ T MRS. A. 5. C. FORBES


Aug is, i»i4

and San July 18;

er and a road-sign. Each guide-post is surmounted by a Mission Bell, weighing a hundred or more pounds and bearing the dates 17691906, the first date being the founding of the first Franciscan Mission in California, the second date the year when the first bell guide-post was erected and therefore marking the date when the restoration of El Camino Real began.

The National Highways Association has planned a motor pilgrimage from New York to San Diego and San Francisco over the National Old Trails Road; the start will be from the Headquarters of the Association, 18 Old Slip, New York City, on June 15. The principal stops will be at Philadelphia, Indianapolis and at St. Louis on June 22; Kansas City, Dodge City, La Junta and Santa Fe on July 2; Grand Canyon, Needles Diego, July 15; Los Angeles, San Francisco, July 22.

Old Cemetery at Antrim, N. H.

At a town meeting held May 1, 1777, the town voted relative to a place for the location of a meeting house and burying place, viz.:

"Voted, to accept the surveyor's report, viz. voted, the spot to build the meeting house to be between a red oak tree marked with the figure eight and the Date of the year 1777, and the burying place."

In 1782 the burial ground was enclosed by a neat log fence—the ground had been chopped over and burned over. Yet there remained a lot of half-con

sumed logs. Dea Aiken, husband of Molly Aiken (for whom Molly Aiken Chapter is named) agreed to burn the brush and put in rye and grass. The next year the land was covered with a heavy growth of rye, which was all reaped in a hot day by the deacon and his three daughters.

In 1794 a stone wall four feet high was built. The wall is standing to-day after a lapse of 120 years. Probably between seven hundred and eight hundred persons were buried in the old graveyard. To those old Revolutionary patriots, heroes arid martyrs, it can without doubt be said, The spirits of those brave heroes are on guard to-day, standing as sentinels around the old flag for which they fought and won.

The old cemetery was considerably neglected for many years, until the present year (1914) when the Molly Aiken Chapter expended about $400 in erecting a memorial gate, placing markers on graves, relaying stone wall and clearing up the grounds. The town voted the sum of $50 to assist them, 39 bronze markers authorized by the Sons of the Revolution were placed in position. They bear a laurel wreath, 13 stars, soldier and musket, and the letters S. A. R. More than 100 stones were straightened up—walls relaid, bushes cut and the cemetery repaired and improved. The work was in charge of a committee consisting of Mrs. Charles P. Carter, Mrs. Edward E. Smith, Mrs. Henry A. Hurlin, Mrs. Fred I. Burnham, Mrs. George W. Hunt.

The list of soldiers buried in the Meeting House Cemetery is 16. Their names are: Isaac Cochran, John McCoy, Thomas Stewart, Peter Woodbury, Hugh Jameson, James Aiken, James Steele, William Smith, John Smith, John Duncan, Daniel Nichols, Adam Templeton, Alexander Parker, Samuel Dinsmore, Joseph Boyd, Peter Barker.

These six in the Ce.itre Yard: Samuel Caldwell, George Gates, James Hopkins, Southeric Weston, Noah Hardy, Lemuel Paige.

North Branch Yard: David McClure, Josiah Herrick, Pitman Howard, James Walker, Robert Melvin, Alexander Grieg.

. East Yard: Thomas Jameson, Thomas Brown, Abizah Barker, William Carr.

Maplewood Cemetery: Daniel Briswell, Thomas Breed.

Isaac F. Walker, a son of the Revolutionary veteran, James Walker, is now (Sept'8, 1914) living in Concord, N. H., nearly 90 years of age—a sister older resides in Nebraska. Molly Aiken Chapter, D. A. R., held the dedication and

unveiling of the new memorial gates at Meeting House Hill Cemetery on Saturday afternoon, Aug. 15, 1914. The exercises were public and attended by a large number. The gates are of iron and 8V2 feet long by 4 feet high. The two posts are of cobble stones and cement. On each post is a handsome bronze tablet 18x24 inches. One of them bears the words: "First burying ground in Town, laid out in 1777. These gates erected in honor of the courage and fidelity of the pioneer men and women and Revolutionary soldiers, by Molly Aiken Chapter, D. A. R., Antrim, N. H., 1914," and bears the D. A. R. insignia. The other tablet is worded: "Soldiers of 1776 who lie buried in unknown graves."

There are 22 names on this tablet and four of them died in service. These names are placed upon the tablet: Randall Alexander, Reuben Boutell, John Brown, Tobias Butler, William Houston, Archibald McAllister, Thomas McClary, John McClary, John Case, James Duncan, Adam Dunlap, Samuel Grigg, Barachias Holt, James Moore, James Nesmith, Zadoc Reed, Nathan Taylor, Jeremiah Wier.

On tablet, names of four who died in service: George Bemaine, James Dickey, James Hutchinson, John Taylor.

Application has been made to the government for additional stones to be used in marking the graves of unknown Revolutionary soldiers. The six for whom government stones are ordered, two being buried in Meeting House Hill Cemetery: Charles Tuttler, Lemuel Curtis.

Two in North Branch Yard: Benjamin Simons, Stephen Curtis.

Two in Centre Yard: John Thompson, Zaccheus Fairbanks.

The exercises opened with welcome by Mrs. George W. Hunt, regent; a double male quartet sang patriotic selections; Rev. G. B. Van Buskirk, pastor of the Methodist Church, offered prayer; "A Detailed Account of the Work," was given by Mrs. Henry A. Hurlin. Rev. Charles H. Chapin, a former Antrim resident and well known here, wrote an original poem for the occasion, which was read by Miss Marion Paine.

The unveiling of the gates was participated in by the members of the chapter, and Warren Merrill, Esq., chairman of the board of selectmen, received them in behalf of the town. The address was given by Mrs. Charles C. Abbott, of Keene, X. II., Vice-President General of the National Society, D. A. R. She extended the greetings of the National Society to the local chapter and deliv

ed an excellent address, paying a high compliment to Molly Aiken Chapter on the completion of this work.

Morris E. Nay, director of the Antrim Brass Band, was bugler for the occasion. Following the dedicatory exercises, the members of the local D. A. R., together with invited friends, were guests of Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Bigelow at Bigelow Bungalow. Mrs. Bigelow is a member of the old Boston Chapter, D. A. R. Over 100 people enjoyed the hospitality of the Bigelows, to whom a vote of thanks was given. All the descendants of the early settlers out of town and in town and others can truly say of the D. A. R. who have been in charge of the work, "Well done, good and faithful servants."

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