Homer: Odyssey XIII and XIV, Books 13-14
The second part of the Odyssey takes epic in new directions, giving very significant roles to people of 'lower status' and their way of life: epic notions of the primacy of the aristocrat and of the achievements of the Trojan War are submitted to scrutiny. Books XIII-XIV contain some of the subtlest human exchanges in the poem, as Athena and Odysseus spar with each other and Odysseus tests the quiet patience of his swineherd Eumaeus. The principal themes and narrative structures, especially of disguise and recognition, which the second part uses with remarkable economy, are established here. The Introduction discusses these topics, and offers a detailed historical account of the Homeric dialect and remarks on metre; the Commentary pays particular attention to the exposition of unfamiliar linguistic forms and constructions. The literary parts of the Introduction and of the commentary are accessible to all.
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3rd p.pl Achilles adverbial adverbial accusative Aeolic Alcinous aorist aorist active aorist middle appears Aristarchus athematic Athena Attic Beekes beggar cave clause cloak cognate contrast Cyclops dative digamma disguise emphasises epic episode epithet Eumaeus Eurycleia expression fact ﬁnd ﬁrst formula genitive gifts gods Greek Homer Iliad indicative inﬁnitive Introduction 5.3 Ionic Ithaca lines M. L. West marks meaning Menelaus motif Mycenean narrative notjust nouns Odysseus optative p.s. aorist palace participle Penelope perhaps pév Phaeacians Philoetius Phoenicians phrase plural poem poet Poseidon recognition reduplicated reference regularly root sacriﬁce scene Scherie scholia sense ship similar speech story subjunctive sufﬁx suggests Suitors swineherd syllable synizesis tale Telemachus Troy verb vowel word Zeus Zeus’s ἀλλ αὐτὰρ γὰρ δὲ δὴ ἐν ἐνὶ ἔπειτα ἐπὶ ἐς καὶ μὲν μιν μοι οἱ ὅς περ τε τοι ὣς