Assessment of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants
Matti Jantunen, Jouni J. K. Jaakkola, M. Krzyzanowski
WHO Regional Office Europe, 1997 - Medical - 139 pages
A practical guide to both general principles and specific methods used to assess exposure to indoor air pollutants. Addressed to public health professionals who lack specialized training in this field, the book aims to facilitate well-designed assessments in order to identify health hazards and support strategies for risk management. Information is specific to the assessment of air pollution exposure in such indoor environments as homes, offices, and various public service buildings.
The book has two parts. The first, which serves as a general introduction, opens with an explanation of concepts used in exposure assessment and important to the design and interpretation of findings. Against this background, subsequent chapters describe specific direct and indirect methods of exposure assessment and use the example of volatile organic compounds to show how exposure to mixtures can be measured. Other chapters discuss the influence of temperature and humidity on the indoor environment, provide guidelines for the design of exposure assessment surveys, and discuss the components of quality control.
The second and most extensive part describes currently available methods for assessing six gaseous air pollutants; four categories of particulate air pollutants; and three biological contaminants commonly found in indoor environments and representing distinct methodological problems. Each pollutant is covered according to a common format which includes information on health effects, sources, variation of exposure, and the advantages and disadvantages of methods for assessing exposure. Further practical guidance is provided in an annex, which includes short summaries of exposure assessment studies completed or under way in the USA and several European countries.
ACTION INDOOR AIR activities air samples allergen analysis and environmental asbestos assessment methods bacteria bioaerosol biological biomarkers carcinogenicity chemicals COLLABORATIVE ACTION INDOOR collected contaminants Copenhagen cotinine database determine emissions Environment and Health environmental epidemiology environmental tobacco smoke equipment estimates EUROPEAN COLLABORATIVE ACTION expo exposure assessment exposure levels factors formaldehyde fungi guidelines health effects house dust mite household Human Exposure Assessment identified individual Indoor Air 93 indoor air pollutants indoor air quality indoor environments infrared spectrometry irritation Jaakkola Journal of exposure lindane measurement ment microenvironmental concentrations microenvironments mite allergens moisture nicotine nitrogen dioxide occupants Office for Europe old Lšnder outdoor air particles particulate matter passive samplers personal monitoring pesticides ples posure procedures Proceedings of Indoor protocol questionnaires radon Regional Office research team respiratory ronmental selected short-term sources subjects symptoms temperature thermal time—activity diaries tion TVOC ventilation volatile organic compounds
Page 30 - The mean radiant temperature is the uniform surface temperature of an enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of heat by radiation...
Page 53 - Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134:204—19.
Page 16 - A marker of exposure is an exogenous substance or its metabolite(s) or the product of an interaction between a xenobiotic agent and some target molecule or cell that is measured in a compartment within an organism.
Page 75 - Air Pollution Sources in Offices and Assembly Halls, Quantified by the Olf Unit".