Abridgement of Mental Philosophy: Including the Three Departments of the Intellect, Sensibilities, and Will ; Designed as a Text-book for Academies and High Schools

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Harper & Brothers, 1864 - Intellect - 564 pages
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Contents

Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
44
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
45
CHAPTER VI
46
Of the organ of sight and the uses or benefits of that scno
47
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
48
The idea of extension not originally from sight
49
Of the knowledgeof the figure of bodies by the sight SO 38 Illustration of the subject from the blind
51
Measurements of magnitude by the eye
52
Of objects seen in a mist
53
Of the estimation of distances by sight
54
Signs by means of which we estimate distance by sight
55
Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects
56
Of objects seen on the ocean Stc
57
CHAPTER VII
58
Of habit in relation to the smell
60
Of habit in relation to the hearing
62
Application of habit to the touch
64
Other striking instances of habits of touch
65
Habits considered in relation to the sight
66
Sensations maypossess a relative as well as positive increase of power
68
Of habits as modified by particular callings and arts
69
The law of habit considered fn reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects
70
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine
71
Meaning and characteristics of conceptions
73
Of conceptions of objects of sight
74
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
76
Influence of habit on conceptions of sight
77
Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
78
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
81
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations 13
82
fcctkm rf 67 Origin of the distinction of simple and complex
83
Simple mental states not susceptible of definition
84
Simple mental states representative of a reality
85
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
86
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
87
The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood
88
Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind
89
Complex notions of external origin
90
Of objects contemplated as wholes
91
CHAPTER X
92
Instances of particular abstract ideas
93
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
94
General abstract notions the same with genera and species
95
Process in classification or the forming of genera ana species
96
Early classifications sometimes incorrect
97
Of the nature of general abstract ideas
98
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers etc
99
Of the speculations of philosophers and others
100
CHAPTER XI
101
Of different degrees of attention
102
Dependence of memory on attention
103
Of exercising attention in reading
104
Alleged inability to command the attention
105
CHAPTER XII
107
Dreams are often caused by our sensations
108
Explanation of the incoherency of dreams 1st cause
110
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
111
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
112
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
113
Explanation of the preceding statements
114
INTELLECTUAL STATES OF INTERNAL ORIGIN
117
CHAPTER I
119
03 Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself
120
There may also be internal accessions to knowledge
121
Instances of notions which have an internal origin
122
ORIGINAL SUGGESTION 108 Impoit of suggestion and its application in Reid and Stewart
123
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
124
Of the nature of inity and the origin of that notion
126
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession
127
Origin of the notion of duration
128
Of time and its measurements and of eternity
129
The idea of space not of external origin
130
The idea of space has its origin in suggestion
131
Of the origin of the idea of power
132
Of the ideas of right and wrong
133
Origin of the ideas of moral merit and demerit
134
Of other elements of knowledge developed in suggestion
135
CHAPTER III
136
Further remarks on the proper objects of consciousness
137
Consciousnes a ground or law of belief
138
CHAPTER IV
140
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
141
Of the use of correlative terms
142
n Relations of degree and names expressive of them
143
in Of relations of proportion
144
iv Of relations of place or position
145
v Of relations of time
146
vi Of ideas of possession
147
7ii Of relations of cause and effect
148
Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect
149
Connexion of relative suggestion with reasoning 1
150
ASSOCIATION I PRIMARY LAWS 139 Reasons for considering this subject here
151
Of the general laws of association
152
Resemblance the first general law of association
153
Of resemblance in the effects produced
154
Contrast the second general or primary law
155
Contiguity the third general or primary law
157
46 Cause and effect the fourth primary law
158
ASSOCIATION II SECONDARY LAWS teetkw hp 147 Secondary laws and their connexion with the primarj
159
Of the influence of lapse of time
160
Secondary law of repetition or habit
161
Of the secondary law of coexistent emotion
162
Original difference in the mental constitution
163
CHAPTER VII
166
Of memory as a ground or law of belief
167
Of differences in the strength of memory
168
Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in time and place
169
Illustrations of specific or circumstantial memory
170
Of philosophic memory or that species of memory which is based on other relations than those of contiguity
171
Illustrations of philosophic memory
172
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
173
Nature of intentional recollection
174
Marks of a good memory
175
Directions or rules for the improvement of the memory
177
Further directions for the improvement of the memory
179
Of observance of the truth in connexion with memory
180
DURATION OF MEMORY 167 Restoration of thoughts and feelings supposed to be forgotten
181
Mental action quickened by influence on the physical system
183
Other instances of quickened mental action and of a restoration of thoughts
184
Approval and illustrations of these views from Coleridge
185
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
187
Connexion of this doctrine with the final judgment and a future life
189
CHAPTER IX
190
Definition of reasoning and of propositions
191
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
192
Illustration of the preceding statement
193
V78 Grounds of the selection of propositions
194
Further considerations on this subject
196
Of differences in the power ef reasoning
197
Of habits of reasoning
198
Of reasoning in connexion with language or expression
199
Illuntration of the foiegoing section
200
fcctiOD ftp 185 Of the subjects of demonstrative reasoning
201
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative retaening
202
The opposites of demonstrative reasonings absurd
203
Demonstrations do not admit of different degrees of belief
204
Of the use ol diagrams in demonstrations
205
CHAPTER XI
206
Of the nature of moral certainty
207
Of reasoning from analogy
208
Of reasoning by induction
209
Of combined or accumulated arguments
210
CHAPTER XII
211
Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
212
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
213
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
215
Of the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir cumstances of success merely
216
Of adherence to our opinions
217
Effects on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
218
CHAPTER XIII
219
The imagination closely related to the reasoning power
220
Definition of the power of imagination
221
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
222
Further remarks on the same subject
223
Grounds of the preference of one conception to another
224
Illustration of the subject from Milton 22
225
Illustration of the statements of the preceding section
227
On the utility of the faculty of the imagination
228
Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning
229
CHAPTER XIV
231
Of excited conceptions and of apparitions in general
232
Of the less permament excited conceptions of sound
234
First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions Morbid sensibility of the retina of the eye
235
Neglect of periodical bloodletting
237
Methods of relief adopted in this case
239
Third cause of excited conceptions Attacks of fever
240
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions In flammation of the brain
241
Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited conceptions
242
Fifth cause of apparitions Hysteria
243
CHAPTER XV
244
Of disordered or alienated sensations
245
Of disordered or alienated external perception
246
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
247
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
248
Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion
249
Disordered or alienated association Light headedness
250
Illustrations of this mental disorder 25 1
251
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane 25
253
Instance of the above form of insanity of reasoning
254
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
255
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
256
CHAPTER I
269
The place of emotions considered in reference to other mental acts
270
The character of emotions changes so as to comform to that of perceptions
271
Emotions characterized by rapidity and variety
272
Characteristics of emotions of beauty
273
Of what is meant by beautiful objects
274
Of the distinction between beautiful and other otiBcts 275
275
Grounds or occasions of emotions of beauty various
276
All objects not equally fitted to cause these emotions
277
A susceptibility of emotions of beauty an ultimate principle of our mental constitution
278
Remarks on the beauty of forms The circle
279
S59 Original or intrinsic beauty The circle
280
Of square pyramidal and triangular forms
281
Of the original or intrinsic beauty of colours
283
Further illustrations of the original beauty of colours
284
Of sounds considered as a source of beauty
286
Illustrations of the original beauty of sounds
287
Further instances of the original beauty of sounds
290
The permanency of musical power dependent on its being intrinsic ib 268 Of motion as an element of beauty
291
Explanation of the beauty of motion from Kaimes
292
ASSOCIATED BEAUTY 270 Associated beauty implies an antecedent or intrinsic beauty
293
Objects may become beautiful by association merely
294
Further illustrations of associated feelings
295
Instances of national associations
297
The sources of associated beauty coincident with those rf human happiness
298
Summary of views in regard to the beautifui
299
EMOTIONS OF SUBLIMITY 276 Connexion between beauty and sublimity
300
The occasions of the emotions of sublimity various
301
Great extent or expansion an occasion of sublimity
302
Great height an element or occasion of sublimity ib 280 Of depth in connexion with the sublime
303
Of colours in connexion with the sublime
304
Of sounds as furnishing an occasion of sublime emotions ib 283 Of motion in connexion with the sublime
305
Indications of power accompanied by emotions of the lublime JOB 285 Of the original or primary sublimity of objects
307
Influence of association on emotions of sublimity
308
CHAPTER V
309
ons of the ludicrous 289 Occasions of emotions of the ludicrous
310
Of what is understood by wit 291 Of wit as it consists in burlesque or in debasing objects
311
Of wit when employed in aggrandizing objects
312
Of the character and occasions of humour
313
Of the practical utility of feelings of the ludicrous
314
Emotions of melancholy sorrow and grief
315
Emotions of surprise astonishment and wonder 98 Emotions of dissatisfaction displeasure and disgust
316
Emotions of diffidence modesty and shame 300 Emotions of regard reverence and adoration
317
CLASS 11
318
THE DESIRES
319
CHAPTER I
321
Tho nature of desires known from consciousness ib 303 Of the place of desires in relation to other mental states
322
The desires characterized by comparative fixedness and peima nency
323
Desires always impjy an object desired
324
308
325
Classification of this part of the sensibilities
326
310
327
311
328
Instances of instincts in the human mind
330
Further instances of instincts in men
331
Of the final cause or use of instincts
332
CHAPTER III
333
Of the prevalence and origin of appetites for intoxicating drugs
334
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the appetites
335
CHAPTER IV
336
Principle of selfpreservation or the desire of continued existence
337
Of the twofold action of the principle of selfpreservation
338
Further illustrations of the principle of curiosity
339
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the principle of curi osity
340
Imitativeness or the propensity to imitation
341
fi7 Practical results of he principle of imitation
342
tKbtm pagt 328 Of thsnatutaldesjfc of jsteem
344
Of the desire of esteem as a rule of conduct
345
Of the desire of possession
346
Of the moral character of the possessory principle
347
Of perversions of the possessory desire
348
Of the tesire of power
349
Of the moral character of the desire of power
350
Propensity of selflove or the desire of happiness
351
Of selfishness as distinguished from selflove
352
Reference to the opinions of philosophical writers
353
The principle of sociality original in the human mind
354
Evidence of the existence of this principle of sociality
355
34C Other illustrations of the existence of this principle
356
Relation of the social principle to civil society 37
357
CHAPTER V
358
Of the complex nature of the affections
359
Of resentment or anger
360
Illustrations of instinctive resentment
361
Of voluntary in distinction from instinctive resentment
362
Tendency of anger to excess and the natural checks to it
363
Other reasons for checking and subduing the angry passions
365
Modifications of resentment Peevishness
366
Modifications of resentment Envy
367
Modifications of resentment Jealousy
368
Modifications of resentment Revenge
369
CHAPTER VI
371
Love in its various forms characterized by a twofold action
372
Illustrations of the strength of the parental affection
374
Of the filial affection
375
The filial affection original or implanted
376
Illustrations of the filial affection
377
Of the nature of the fraternal affection
379
On the utility of the domestic affections
380
Of the moral character of the domestic affections and of the be nevolent affections generally
381
Of the moral character of the voluntary exercises of the benevo lent affections
382
Of the connexion between benevolence and rectitude
383
Of humanity or the love of the human race
384
Further proofs in support of the doctrine of an innate humanity or love for the human race
386
369 Proofs cf a humane or philanthropic p inciple from the existence of benevolent institutions
387
Other remarks in proof of the same doctrine
388
Of patriotism or love of country
389
Of the affection of friendship
390
Of the affection of pity or sympathy
391
Of the moral character of pity
392
Of the affection of gratitude
394
Beetioc Pa
396
CHAPTER VIII
404
PART II
411
Of objects of moral approval and disapproval
418
MORAL OBLIGATION
424
CHAPTER IV
433
Further illustrations of the influence of wrong speculative opin
439
Of the discouragements attending a process of moral instruction
445
CHAPTER I
451
Disordered action of the principle of selfpreservation
454
Disordered and alienated action of the possessory principle
455
Disordered action of imitativeness or the principle of imitation
456
Disordered action of the principle of sociality
457
Further remarks on the disordered action of the social propensity
458
Of the disordered action of the desire of esteem
459
Disordered action of the desire of power
460
CHAPTER II
461
Familiar instances of sympathetic imitation
462
Instances of sympathetic imitation at the poorhouse of Harlem
463
Other instances of this species of imitation
464
CHAPTER III
465
Of sudden and strong impulses of the mind
467
Insanity of the affections or passions
468
Of the mental disease termed hypochondriasis
469
Of intermissions of hypochondriasis and of its remedies
471
Disordered action of the passion of fear
473
CHAPTER IV
475
Of accountability in connexion with this forirffof disordered conscience
476
Of natural or congenital moral derangement
477
Moral accountability in cases of natural moral derangement
479
DIVISION III
481
GENERAL NATURE OF THE WILL 451 The will the third and last department of the mind
483
Of the nature of the acts of the will or volitions
484
It exists in reference to what we believe to be in our power
485
Volition relates to our own action and to whatever else may be dependent upon us
486
Volitions involve a prospective element
488
CHAPTER II
490
Remarks of Hooker on the universality of law
491
A presumption thus furnislied for subjection of the will to law
492
Section Page 462 The notion which men naturally formof the Deity implies foreknowledge
493
The foreknowledge of events implies the foreknowledge of vo litions
494
Application of these views to the will 4DG 466 The views of this chapter in harmony with the doctrine of the influences of the Holj Spirit ib CHAPT...
496
Man as well as Deity susceptible of foresight
497
Prescience of men in respect to their own situation c
498
Foresight of men in respect to the conduct of others
499
4Z0 Other familiar instances of this foresight
500
Argument from the regularity of voluntary contributions
501
Of sagacity in the estimate of individual character
502
Foresight of the conduct of masses of men and nations
503
CHAPTER V
505
Circumstances under which freedom of the will exists
506
Evidence of the freedom of the will from consciousness
507
Objection to the argument from consciousness
508
CHAPTER VI
509
Evidence of freedom of the will from feelings of approval and disapproval
510
Proof of freedom from feelings of remorse
511
Without the possession of liberty of will man could never have framed the abstract notions of right and wrong
512
Proof from feelings of moral obligation
513
Evidence from mens views of crimes and punishments
514
Prevalent opinions of mankind on this subject
516
Both views are to be full received
517
The doctrine of the wills freedom equally important with that of its subjection to law
518
CHAPTER VII
519
Proof of power in the will from internal experience
520
Proved from the ability which we have to direct our attention to particular subjects
521
Illustration of tie subject from the command of temper
523
Illustrated from the prosecution of some general plan
524
The subject illustrated from the first settlers of New England
526
314
27

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Page 80 - Spit, fire! spout, rain! Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire, are my daughters: I tax not you, you elements, with unkindness; I never gave you kingdom, call'd you children, You owe me no subscription: then let fall Your horrible pleasure; here I stand, your slave, A poor, infirm, weak, and despis'd old man.
Page 305 - The voice of the Lord is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth: the Lord is upon many waters.
Page 390 - Lands intersected by a narrow frith Abhor each other. Mountains interposed Make enemies of nations, who had else Like kindred drops been mingled into one.
Page 103 - The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, When neither is attended ; and, I think The nightingale, if she should sing by day, When every goose is cackling, would be thought No better a musician than the wren.
Page 308 - AND I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud : and a rainbow was upon his head, and his face was as it were the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire...
Page 491 - Of law there can be no less acknowledged, than that her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of the world ; all things in heaven and earth do her homage, the very least as feeling her care, and the greatest as not exempted from her power...
Page 304 - There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured : coals were kindled by it. He bowed the heavens also, and came down : and darkness was under his feet. And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly : yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind. He made darkness his secret place ; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies.
Page 242 - Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee : I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind; a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain?
Page 182 - Lulled in the countless chambers of the brain, Our thoughts are linked by many a hidden chain. Awake but one, and lo, what myriads rise ! * Each stamps its image as the other flies.
Page 312 - The sun had long since in the lap Of Thetis taken out his nap, And like a lobster boiled, the morn From black to red began to turn," The imagination modifies images, and gives unity to variety ; it sees all things in one, il piti nelV uno.

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