Tensile Testing, 2nd Edition

Front Cover
Joseph R. Davis
ASM International, 2004 - Brittleness - 283 pages
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Tensile testing also known as tension testing,is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure.
Properties that are directly measured via
a tensile test are
ultimate tensile strength
maximum elongation
and reduction in area.
From these measurements the following properties can also be determined:
Young's modulu
Poisson's ratio
yield strength
and strain-hardening characteristics.[3] Uniaxial tensile testing is the most commonly used for obtaining the mechanical characteristics of isotropic materials. For anisotropic materials, such as composite materials and textiles, biaxial tensile testing is required.
 

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Contents

Toughness
127
Ductility
129
True StressStrain Relationships
130
Temperature and StrainRate Effects
131
Special Tests
133
Fracture Characterization
134
Summary
136
Tensile Testing of Plastics
137

Instability in Tension
22
Stress Distribution at the Neck
23
Ductility Measurement in Tensile Testing
24
Sheet Anisotropy
25
Notch Tensile Test
28
Uniaxial Tensile Testing
33
Definitions and Terminology
34
StressStrain Behavior
36
Properties from Test Results
40
General Procedures
47
Test Setup
54
Test Procedures
56
PostTest Measurements
58
Variability of Tensile Properties
59
Tensile Testing Equipment and Strain Sensors
65
Testing Machines
66
Principles of Operation
68
LoadMeasurement Systems
74
StrainMeasurement Systems
77
Gripping Techniques
83
Environmental Chambers
84
Force Verification of Universal Testing Machines
85
Tensile Testing Requirements and Standards
87
Tensile Testing for Design
91
Design for Strength in Tension
92
Design for Strength Weight and Cost
93
Design for Stiffness in Tension
95
Mechanical Testing for Stress at Failure and Elastic Modulus
97
HardnessStrength Correlation
99
Tensile Testing for Determining Sheet Formability
101
Effect of Temperature on Formability
106
Types of Formability Tests
107
PlaneStrain Tensile Testing
111
Tensile Testing of Metals and Alloys
115
Anelasticity
116
Damping
118
Yielding and the Onset of Plasticity
119
The Yield Point
122
GrainSize Effects on Yielding
123
Strain Hardening and the Effect of Cold Work
124
Ultimate Strength
126
Fundamental Factors that Affect Data from Tensile Tests
138
Stipulations in Standardized Tensile Testing
144
Utilization of Data from Tensile Tests
150
Summary
152
Tensile Testing of Elastomers
155
Factors Influencing Elastomer Properties
156
ASTM Standard D 412
158
Significance and Use of TensileTesting Data
159
Summary
161
Tensile Testing of Ceramics and CeramicMatrix Composites
163
Overview of Important Considerations for Tensile Testing of Advanced Ceramics
164
Tensile Testing Techniques
165
Summary
179
Tensile Testing of FiberReinforced Composites
183
Single Filaments and Tows
185
Data Reduction
191
Application of Tensile Tests to Design
192
Tensile Testing of Components
195
Testing of Adhesive Joints
204
Testing of Welded Joints
206
Hot Tensile Testing
209
Equipment and Testing Procedures
210
Hot Ductility and Strength Data from the Gleeble Test
215
Isothermal Hot Tensile Test Data
220
Modeling of the Isothermal Hot Tensile Test
226
Cavitation during Hot Tensile Testing
230
Tensile Testing at Low Temperatures
239
Tensile versus Compression Tests
241
Equipment
243
Tensile Testing Parameters and Standards
246
Temperature Control
248
High Strain Rate Tensile Testing
251
Expanding Ring Test
254
Flyer Plate and Short Duration Pulse Loading
255
The SplitHopkinson Pressure Bar Technique
257
Rotating Wheel Test
260
Glossary of Terms
265
Reference Tables
273
Roomtemperature tensile modulus of elasticity comparisons of various materials
275
Index
279
Copyright

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Page 19 - Fracture strength and fracture stress. (Fracture strength is the load at fracture divided by the initial cross-sectional area. Fracture stress is the load at fracture divided by the cross-sectional area at time of fracture.) (11) Uniform elongation and method of measurement.

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