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adults Affecting Outbreaks Attacking beetles average diameter bark beetle infestation base become infested beetle develop beetle populations beetle-caused mortality beetles attack Beetles usually blue-staining fungi boring dust breast height campgrounds checkered beetle Cold Temperature control measure crown diameter at breast diameter trees Discolored foliage egg galleries endemic epidemics Evidence of Infestation Extension fading feed female beetles fested trees Figure Food Supply Forest Pest Manage habitat hazard rating High-risk high-value highly susceptible holes inches 25 cm inner bark Insecticides killed landowners large sugar pines larger lodgepole pines larvae lodgepole pine stands moun mountain pine beetle needles North America overcomes the tree Parasites Patch cutting pheromones phloem pine beetle brood Pitch tubes ponderosa pine prevent pupae reduce beetle numbers resin Resource managers sapwood Silvicultural species successfully infested trees survive susceptible stands tack tain pine beetle thick tree mortality tree's ability trees usually Trees with yellow trunk white pines Woodpeckers yellow foliage