Reasoning and Thinking
This undergraduate textbook reviews psychological research in the major areas of reasoning and thinking: deduction, induction, hypothesis testing, probability judgement, and decision making. It also covers the major theoretical debates in each area, and devotes a chapter to one of the liveliest issues in the field: the question of human rationality. Central themes that recur throughout the book include not only rationality, but also the relation between normative theories such as logic, probability theory, and decision theory, and human performance, both in experiments and in the world outside the laboratory. No prior acquaintance with formal systems is assumed, and everyday examples are used throughout to illustrate technical and theoretical points.
The book differs from others in the market firstly in the range of material covered: other tend to focus primarily on on either reasoning or thinking. It is also the first student-level text to survey an imporatant new theoretical perspective, the information-gain or rational analysis approach, and to review the rationality debate from the standpoint of psuchological research in a wide range of areas.
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abstract alsatians alternative antecedent argue argument base rates base-rate Bayesian belief biases borzois causal Chapter Cheng cognitive conditional conditional sentence confirmation bias conjunction fallacy consider decision decision theory deduction deductive reasoning deontic reasoning dilemma disconfirm disjunctive earlier effect Evans evidence example experiments explain fallacy false falsifying formal frequency generalisation Gigerenzer given heuristic Holyoak hypothesis idea implicatures inference rules information gain instance Johnson-Laird and Byrne judgements Kahneman kind look matching bias mental logic theory mental models theory modus ponens negative normative O’Brien Oaksford and Chater people’s performance positive test possible predictions prefer premise principle prior probability probability problem properties proposed prospect theory PRS theory psychological PSYCOP q cards rationality relation relevant Rips rottweilers schemas selection task sentence sesamoid bones similar statement studies subjects syllogisms theoretical theorists thinking THOG true Tversky utility valid Wason Wason selection task