## Statistical Reasoning for the Behavioral Sciences |

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Page 124

Suppose further that the instructor wishes to obtain a measure of the

performance of all her students, regardles of class. She could, of course, obtain

the final examination scores for students in both classes and calculate a mean

over ...

Suppose further that the instructor wishes to obtain a measure of the

**average**performance of all her students, regardles of class. She could, of course, obtain

the final examination scores for students in both classes and calculate a mean

over ...

Page 192

Table 7-2 0 Covariance of Scholastic Aptitude Test scores with grade-point

Student X X X__X Y_ Y xy 1 450 577 — 1 27 2.40 3.10 .70 88.90 2 500 577 -77

3.12 3.10 ...

Table 7-2 0 Covariance of Scholastic Aptitude Test scores with grade-point

**averages**at Bart Farguart College (4) (b) (¢) (<1) (¢) (f) (8) (h) _ x - Y _ Y Y _Student X X X__X Y_ Y xy 1 450 577 — 1 27 2.40 3.10 .70 88.90 2 500 577 -77

3.12 3.10 ...

Page 274

7.89, or, in words, the

hypothesis against an altemative hypothesis H1. The altemative hypothesis ...

7.89, or, in words, the

**average**reading level of seniors in the state is 7.89—the**average**reading level of seniors in the country. 2. Test the assumption of the nullhypothesis against an altemative hypothesis H1. The altemative hypothesis ...

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### Contents

The Role of Research in the Behavioral Sciences 4 Purposes of Empirical Research | 9 |

Development of Moral Judgment IIO Measures of Central | 14 |

Some Basic Elements in Designing Research 13 Threats to the Validity of Research | 41 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

abscissa achievement altemative alternative hypothesis assumption average behavioral research belief scale cell central tendency Chapter class interval column Compute confidence interval constructed control group correlation coefficient critical value cumulative frequency degrees of freedom differences between means distribution of means equal estimate EXAMPLE PROBLEM expected frequencies experimental group factor Figure Formula frequency distribution frequency polygon grades graph hypothetical study independent variable inferential statistics internal validity interpretation measure median midpoint moral judgments negative normal distribution null and alternative null hypothesis number of subjects O O O O O observed one-tailed test Operation Example ordinate outcome percentile points population mean posttest scores predicted pretest random sample randomly assigned raw scores real limits regression reject H0 reject the null relationship represent sample data sample mean sampling distribution scatterplot score value scores fall standard deviation standard error statistical inference statistical test summarized in Procedure Suppose teacher expectancy theory two-tailed test variance zero