## Statistical Reasoning for the Behavioral Sciences |

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### Contents

The Role of Research in the Behavioral Sciences 4 Purposes of Empirical Research | 9 |

Development of Moral Judgment IIO Measures of Central | 14 |

Some Basic Elements in Designing Research 13 Threats to the Validity of Research | 41 |

Copyright | |

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abscissa achievement altemative alternative hypothesis assumption average behavioral research belief scale cell central tendency Chapter class interval column Compute confidence interval constructed control group correlation coefficient critical value cumulative frequency degrees of freedom differences between means distribution of means equal estimate EXAMPLE PROBLEM expected frequencies experimental group factor Figure Formula frequency distribution frequency polygon grades graph hypothetical study independent variable inferential statistics internal validity interpretation measure median midpoint moral judgments negative normal distribution null and alternative null hypothesis number of subjects O O O O O observed one-tailed test Operation Example ordinate outcome percentile points population mean posttest scores predicted pretest random sample randomly assigned raw scores real limits regression reject H0 reject the null relationship represent sample data sample mean sampling distribution scatterplot score value scores fall standard deviation standard error statistical inference statistical test summarized in Procedure Suppose teacher expectancy theory two-tailed test variance zero