Reasoning and Thinking
This undergraduate textbook reviews psychological research in the major areas of reasoning and thinking: deduction, induction, hypothesis testing, probability judgement, and decision making. It also covers the major theoretical debates in each area, and devotes a chapter to one of the liveliest issues in the field: the question of human rationality. Central themes that recur throughout the book include not only rationality, but also the relation between normative theories such as logic, probability theory, and decision theory, and human performance, both in experiments and in the world outside the laboratory. No prior acquaintance with formal systems is assumed, and everyday examples are used throughout to illustrate technical and theoretical points.
The book differs from others in the market firstly in the range of material covered: other tend to focus primarily on on either reasoning or thinking. It is also the first student-level text to survey an imporatant new theoretical perspective, the information-gain or rational analysis approach, and to review the rationality debate from the standpoint of psuchological research in a wide range of areas.
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Experiments with syllogisms
Experiments with if and other connectives
Biases and content effects
Theories of deduction
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abstract alsatians alternative argue argument base rates base-rate Bayesian belief borzois bounded rationality Byrne causal Chapter Cheng cognitive Cognitive Psychology conclusion conditional confirmation bias conjunction fallacy consider decision deduction deductive reasoning deontic reasoning disconfirm disjunctive earlier effect Evans evidence example Experimental Psychology experiments explain fallacy false falsifying frequency Gigerenzer given heuristics and biases Holyoak human idea implicatures inference rules information gain instance Johnson-Laird Journal of Experimental judgements Kahneman kind look Manktelow matching bias mental logic theory mental models theory modus ponens negative Newstead normative O'Brien Oaksford and Chater performance positive test possible predictions premise principle probability problem properties proposed prospect theory PRS theory PSYCOP q cards Quarterly Journal rationality relation relevance Rips rottweilers schemas selection task sentence sesamoid bones Shafir similar statement studies subjects syllogisms syllogistic reasoning theoretical theorists THOG true truth-table Tversky utility valid Wason Wason selection task