Pancreatic Beta Cell in Health and Disease

Front Cover
Susumu Seino, Graeme I. Bell
Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 8, 2008 - Science - 476 pages
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The beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are the only cells in the body that produce and secrete insulin, a key metabolic hormone, which plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis regulating glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue as well as carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in these tissues and the liver. Failure of normal beta-cell function can lead to hyperglycemia (diabetes mellitus) or hypoglycemia. While hy- glycemia is a rare and life-threatening condition in which the beta cell secretes too much insulin, diabetes mellitus is a common disorder that is fast bec- ing an epidemic. It is a major threat to human health in the 21st century. The number of diabetic patients worldwide is rapidly increasing and is predicted to reach 380 million by 2025, according to the International Diabetes Fede- tion (IDF). Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder with some forms such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young and permanent neonatal diabetes being primary genetic disorders of the beta cell. Monogenic forms of diabetes are an uncommon cause of diabetes representing about 1% of cases. The common forms of diabetes mellitus, designated type 1 and type 2, are multifactorial in origin with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to their development. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells leading to an absolute de? ciency of insulin and fatal hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis if not treated.
 

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Contents

1 Architecture of Pancreatic Islets
3
2 Transcriptional Regulation of Insulin Gene Expression
13
3 The Biosynthesis of Insulin
31
II Cell Signaling and Insulin Secretion
50
4 Metabolic Regulation of Insulin Secretion
53
5 Mechanisms of BetaCell Death in Diabetes
75
6 Ion Channels and Insulin Secretion
91
7 Gap Junctions and Insulin Secretion
111
13 BetaCell Replication
245
14 Stem Cells as a Cure for Diabetes
265
15 Use of ExtraPancreatic Tissues for Cell Replacement Therapy for Diabetes
285
IV Incretins and BetaCell Function
314
16 Molecular Biology of GlucoIncretin Function
315
17 Incretins and Regulation of Insulin Secretion
335
V Pancreatic Beta Cell and Disease
379
18 Pancreatic Islet Pathology in Type 2 Diabetes
381

8 Protein Kinase AIndependent Mechanism of cAMP in Insulin Secretion
133
9 Regulation of Insulin Granule Exocytosis
147
10 Mechanism of Insulin Exocytosis Analyzed by Imaging Techniques
177
11 TwoPhoton Excitation Imaging of Insulin Exocytosis
195
III Pancreatic Development and BetaCell Formation
212
12 Regulation of BetaCell Growth and Death
215
19 Genetic Disorders of the Pancreatic Beta Cell and Diabetes Permanent Neonatal Diabetes and MaturityOnset Diabetes of the Young
399
20 ATPSensitive Potassium Channels in Health and Disease
431
21 Glucokinase in Glucose Homeostasis Diabetes Mellitus Hypoglycemia and as Drug Receptor
451
Subject Index
465
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