Brown Tide Rising: Metaphors of Latinos in Contemporary American Public Discourse
". . . awash under a brown tide . . . the relentless flow of immigrants . . . like waves on a beach, these human flows are remaking the face of America . . ." Since 1993, metaphorical language such as this has permeated mainstream media reporting on the United States’ growing Latino population. In this groundbreaking book, Otto Santa Ana argues that far from being mere figures of speech, such metaphors produce and sustain negative public perceptions of the Latino community and its place in American society, precluding the view that Latinos are vested with the same rights and privileges as other citizens. Applying the insights of cognitive metaphor theory to an extensive natural language data set drawn from hundreds of articles in the Los Angeles Times and other media, Santa Ana reveals how metaphorical language portrays Latinos as invaders, outsiders, burdens, parasites, diseases, animals, and weeds. He convincingly demonstrates that three anti-Latino referenda passed in California because of such imagery, particularly the infamous anti-immigrant measure, Proposition 187. Santa Ana illustrates how Proposition 209 organizers broadcast compelling new metaphors about racism to persuade an electorate that had previously supported affirmative action to ban it. He also shows how Proposition 227 supporters used antiquated metaphors for learning, school, and language to blame Latino children’s speech—rather than gross structural inequity—for their schools’ failure to educate them. Santa Ana concludes by calling for the creation of insurgent metaphors to contest oppressive U.S. public discourse about minority communities.
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affirmative action African Americans American analysis Angeles Anglo-American animal metaphors associated bilingual education California campaign Chapter characterized child citizens citizenship Civil Rights classes cognitive cognitivist communication conceptual conceptual metaphor conventional critical critical discourse analysis cultural DANGEROUS WATERS database disease dominant metaphor economic EDUCATION AS PATH English language English-only everyday excerpt expressed FACTORY HOUSE metaphor human illegal immigration immi IMMIGRANT AS ANIMAL individual institutional issue Kerner Commission Lakoff Latinos learning linguistic literacy Los Angeles mainstream Malcolm X mapping mass media meta Mexican minority monolingual NATION AS BODY NATION AS HOUSE neoconservatives ontology PATH metaphor percent person phor political practices programs Proposition 187 public discourse public education public schools race racial reference referendum Ron Unz Section semantic domain sentence Spanish speak structure target domain teachers texts theory tion U.S. public United voters WATERS metaphor white Americans white racism worldview