Lead Diseases: a Treatise from the French of L. Tanquerel Des Planches: With Notes and Additions on the Use of Lead Pipe and Its Substitutes

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D. Bixby, 1848 - Lead - 441 pages
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Page 367 - When the water is judged to be of a kind which is likely to attack lead-pipes, or when it actually flows through them impregnated with lead, a remedy may be found, either in leaving the pipes full of the water, and at rest for three or four months, or by substituting for the water a weak solution of phosphate of soda, in the proportion of about a 25,000th part.
Page 375 - ... from the size of a pin's head to that of a pea ; scattered through a large body of sand or clay ; and in this state it is called by the Mandingoes sanoo munko,
Page 366 - In all cases, even though the composition of the water seems to bring it within the conditions of safety, now stated, an attentive examination should be made of the water, after it has been running for a few days through the pipes. For it is not improbable that other circumstances, besides those hitherto ascertained, may modify the preventive influence of the neutral salts.
Page 366 - ... 6. So large a proportion as a 4000th, probably even a considerably larger proportion, will be insufficient, if the salts in solution be in a great measure muriates. 7.
Page 366 - ... 4. Water, which contains less than about an 8000th of salts in solution, cannot be safely conducted in lead-pipes, without certain precautions. 5. Even this proportion will prove insufficient to prevent corrosion, unless a considerable part of the saline matter consist of carbonates and sulphates, especially the former.
Page 167 - Or take a case of rheumatism, resembling lead arthralgy, "characterized by sharp pains in the limbs, unaccompanied by either redness or swelling, not precisely following the track of the nervous cords — constant but becoming acute by paroxysms, diminished by pressure, increased by motion, and accompanied by cramps and hardness and tension of the painful parts.
Page 366 - I conceive right to add, that in all cases, even though the composition of the water seems to bring it within the conditions of safety now stated, an attentive examination should be made of the water after it has been running for a few days through the pipes. For it is not improbable that other circumstances, besides those hitherto ascertained, may regulate the preventive influence of the neutral salts.
Page 366 - ... 2. The. risk of a dangerous impregnation of lead is greatest in the instance of the purest water. 3. Water which tarnishes polished lead, when left at rest upon it in a glass vessel for a few hours, cannot be safely transmitted through lead pipes without certain precautions. 4. Water which contains less than about an 8000th of salts in solution cannot be safely conducted in lead pipes without certain precautions.
Page 423 - Without entering upon the palpable sources of error in the above experiments, judging them from the published account which is given here, it may be stated that the direct inference implied, — that similar...
Page 366 - ... 1. Lead pipes ought not to be used for the purpose, at least where the distance is considerable, without a careful examination of the water to be transmitted. " 2. The risk of a dangerous impregnation with lead is greatest in the instance of the purest waters. " 3. Water, which tarnishes polished lead when left at rest upon it in a glass vessel for a few hours, cannot be safely transmitted through lead-pipes without certain precautions.

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