GERD: Reflux to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is one of the most common maladies of mankind. Approximately 40% of the adult population of the USA suffers from significant heartburn and the numerous antacids advertised incessantly on national television represents a $8 billion per year drug market. The ability to control acid secretion with the increasingly effective acid-suppressive agents such as the H2 blockers (pepcid, zantac) and proton pump inhibitors (nexium, prevacid) has given physicians an excellent method of treating the symptoms of acid reflux.
Unfortunately, this has not eradicated reflux disease. It has just changed its nature. While heartburn, ulceration and strictures have become rare, reflux-induced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is becoming increasingly common. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia is now the most rapidly increasing cancer type in the Western world.
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has created an enormous interest and stimulus for research in this area. GERD brings together a vast amount of disparate literature and presents the entire pathogenesis of reflux disease in one place. In addition to providing a new concept of how gastroesophageal reflux causes cellular changes in the esophagus, GERD also offers a complete solution to a problem that has confused physicians for over a century. Both clinical and pathological information about reflux disease and its treatment are presented. GERD is meant to be used as a comprehensive reference for gastroenterologists, esophageal surgeons, and pathologists alike.
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Fetal Development of the Esophagus and Stomach
Normal Anatomy Present Definition of the Gastroesophageal Junction
Histologic Definitions and Diagnosis of Epithelial Types
New Histologic Definitions of Esophagus Stomach and Gastroesophageal Junction
Pathology of Reflux Disease at a Cellular Level Part 1Damage to Squamous Epithelium and Transformation into Cardiac Mucosa
Pathology of Reflux Disease at an Anatomic Level
Reflux Disease Limited to the Dilated EndStage Esophagus The Pathologic Basis of NERD
Definition of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Barrett Esophagus
Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Barrett Esophagus and Dysplasia
Research Strategies for Preventing RefluxInduced Adenocarcinoma
Rationale for Treatment of Reflux Disease and Barrett Esophagus
Treatment Strategies for Preventing RefluxInduced Adenocarcinoma
The Pathology of Reflux Disease at a Cellular Level Part 2Evolution of Cardiac Mucosa to Oxyntocardiac Mucosa and Intestinal Metaplasia
Pathology of Reflux Disease at a Cellular Level Part 3Intestinal Barrett Metaplasia to Carcinoma
Other editions - View all
24-hour pH test abnormal acid suppressive drugs antireflux surgery autopsy Barrett esophagus biopsy carcinogenic carcinoma cardiac and oxyntocardiac cardiac mucosa carditis Chandrasoma changes clinical columnar epithelium columnar metaplasia columnar-lined esophagus criteria Cross reference damage defined definition develop diagnosis dilated end-stage esophagus distal distal esophagus endoscopic epithe epithelial epithelial types esophageal adenocarcinoma esophagectomy fetal FIGURE foveolar pit gastric cardia gastric mucosa gastric oxyntic mucosa gastritis gastro gastroesophageal junction gastroesophageal reflux disease geal goblet cells heartburn hiatal hernia high-grade dysplasia histologic increased inflammation intestinal meta intestinal metaplasia length of columnar-lined lined esophagus lium low-grade dysplasia lower esophageal sphincter molecules mucous cells normal occurs oxyntocardiac mucosa parietal cells pathologists patients with Barrett patients with reflux plasia present prevalence progenitor cell proximal limit proximal stomach reflux carditis re▀ux rugal folds short-segment Barrett esophagus showed specimens squamocolumnar junction squamous epithelium submucosal glands surveillance symptoms thelium tion tubular esophagus tumor ulcer
Page 8 - Devesa SS, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF Jr. Changing patterns in the incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinoma in the United States.