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Activity histogram altitude antenna auroral echoes auroral ionization auroral reflections auroral structures auroral zone aurorasonde backscatter recordings colatitude conventional MUF critical frequency detection of auroral direction earth's magnetic field echoes recorded energy equivalent geometrical path equivalent layer tilt equivalent tilt exact-perpendicular intersection F backscatter F mode F path F propagation F rays F region F-layer reflection field-aligned ionization grazing incidence ground-reflected rays horizontal gradients IFg mode illuminated ionized structures ionospheric reflection latitude Loci of near-perpendicular long-range magnetic field lines Mc radiation multipath near-perpendicular intersection observed path length period in April period in February perpendicular intersection prevalent primitive model propagation modes radio propagation radio reflections Range histogram ray system ray trajectories reflected rays reflecting layer reflection height reflection point reflections recorded scatter sequence shown in Fig skip distance skip zone slant range take-off angles tilted F layer tilted reflection time-delay focusing two-week period