Njinga of Angola
One of history’s most multifaceted rulers but little known in the West, Queen Njinga rivaled Elizabeth I and Catherine the Great in political cunning and military prowess. Today, she is revered in Angola as a heroine and honored in folk religions. Her complex legacy forms a crucial part of the collective memory of the Afro-Atlantic world.
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1 The Ndongo Kingdom and the Portuguese Invasion
2 Crisis and the Rise of Njinga
3 A Defiant Queen
4 Treacherous Politics
5 Warfare and Diplomacy
6 A Balancing Act
7 On the Way to the Ancestors
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African allies Ambaca army arrived baptism baptized Barbara Bento Banha Cardoso brother Cadornega Cambambe campaign captain captured Capuchins Carta de Fernão ceremony Christian church Correia de Sá Cortona court death Dias de Novais diferent Dutch eforts envoy Father Cavazzi Father Cortona Father Gaeta Fernão de Sousa Filhos forces Governador governor guese Hari a Kiluanje Hari’s História Ibid Imbangala leader Istorica Descrizione Jesuits João Kabasa Kambu Kasanje Kasenda kijikos kilombo Kimbundu king of Portugal kingdom Kongo Kwanza River lands letter lineage Lisbon Luanda Lucala makotas Maravigliosa Conversione Massangano Matamba Mbande a Ngola Mbande’s Mbundu Mendes de Vasconcelos military missionaries MSS Araldi mwene lumbo negotiations ngangas Ngola Hari Ngola Kiluanje kia Ngola Mbande Njinga a Mona Njinga sent ofered peace political Portugal Portuguese officials priests province Pungo Ndongo Queen Njinga religious rituals royal Saccardo sister sobas soldiers Sousa ao Governo Sousa Chichorro spiritual traditions tribute troops vassal women