## Aristotelian LogicThis book provides detailed treatment of topics in traditional logic: the theory of terms; the theory of definition; the informal fallacies; and division and classification. Aristotelian Logic teaches techniques for solving semantic problems problems caused by confusion over terminology. It teaches the theory of definition the different kinds of definition and the criteria by which each is judged. It also teaches that definitions are like tools in that some are better suited for a particular task than others. Several chapters are devoted to informal fallacies. A new classification is given for them, and the concept of proof is presented, without which some of the traditional informal fallacies cannot be explained adequately. Another chapter is devoted to division and classification, which occurs in all of the sciences. Other topics covered include the square of opposition, immediate inferences, and the syllogistic and chain arguments. |

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### Contents

Propositions | 23 |

Logical Form and Counterexamples | 37 |

Definition | 43 |

Division and Classiﬁcation | 129 |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | 155 |

Existential Presuppositions of Aristotelian Logic | 179 |

Distribution of Terms in Categorical Propositions | 189 |

Conversion | 205 |

Standardizing Categorical Propositions | 339 |

The Enthymeme | 359 |

The Antilogism for NPair Arguments | 367 |

The Hypothetical Syllogism | 373 |

The Disjunctive Syllogism | 383 |

The Dilemma | 395 |

Proof and Fallacies | 409 |

Linguistic Fallacies | 423 |

Deﬁnitions | 265 |

A Deductive System of the Standard Syllogism 27 I | 271 |

2 Rules of the Standard Syllogism | 291 |

Chain Arguments Including Sorites | 309 |

Reducing the Number of Terms in Arguments 3 | 319 |

Singular Propositions | 329 |

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affirmative Amphiboly animals antecedent antilogistic triad appeal appeal to pity argument form Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle’s asserts audience authority begging the question called categorical syllogism cats chain argument classiﬁcation conclusion consequent constructive dilemma context contradictory contrapositive conversion deﬁned deﬁniendum deﬁnition dilemma discrete term disjunctive syllogism distinct distributed division dogs entails enthymeme equivalent example Exercises for Chapter expert fallacy false figure ﬁrst formal fallacy formally valid genus gism given hence hypothetical proposition hypothetical syllogism iffi illicit metabasis immediate inference inconsistent indirect reduction intended invalid logicians major premiss mammals meaning middle term minor mixed hypothetical syllogism modus tollens negative non-P non-S number of terms objects obverse opinion person ponens predicate term proof proved quantifier question-begging relation rules sentence singular term Socrates sorites species square of opposition standard categorical propositions standard syllogism subaltern subcontraries subject term subterm thesis things tion undistributed universal valid argument valid syllogistic form wombat