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Levels of Complexity of Ecological Systems
PATTERNS OF ADAPTATION
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abundance activity adaptation air temperature animals aquatic Aswan Dam atmosphere behavior biogeochemical biogeochemical cycles biomass biotic birds canopy carbon carbon dioxide Chamise changes characteristics chemical climatic coefficient components concentration curves cycle decrease desert dispersal distribution ecological isolation ecologists ecosystem effects energy budget energy flow epilimnion equation estimated eutrophication evaporation evolutionary example factors feeding FIGURE forest function gradient groups growth habitats heat herbivores homeotherms humidity important increase individuals infrared input insects intensity interactions interspecific competition involved islands lake leaf area index light lizard major measured metabolic mortality natural nitrogen number of species nutrients occur organisms oxygen patterns phosphorus photosynthesis physical environment phytoplankton planktonic plants pools population density predation primary production processes relationships relative respiration result shrubs slope soil solar radiation species diversity structure studies suggested surface Table terrestrial tion trees trophic level utilization various vegetation