Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control
Oxford University Press, 1993 - Education - 359 pages
When experience with uncontrollable events gives rise to the expectation that events in the future will also elude control, disruptions in motivation, emotion, and learning may ensue. "Learned helplessness" refers to the problems that arise in the wake of uncontrollability. First described in the 1960s among laboratory animals, learned helplessness has since been applied to a variety of human problems entailing inappropriate passivity and demoralization. While learned helplessness is best known as an explanation of depression, studies with both people and animals have mapped out the cognitive and biological aspects. The present volume, written by some of the most widely recognized leaders in the field, summarizes and integrates the theory, research, and application of learned helplessness. Each line of work is evaluated critically in terms of what is and is not known, and future directions are sketched. More generally, psychiatrists and psychologists in various specialties will be interested in the book's argument that a theory emphasizing personal control is of particular interest in the here and now, as individuality and control are such salient cultural topics.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
Learned Helplessness in Animals
The Biology of Learned Helplessness
Learned Helplessness in People
The Attributional Reformulation
Learned Helplessness and Depression
Learned Helplessness and Social Problems
Abramson activity amygdala analgesia animal's anxiety anxiogenic anxiolytic argue attribution theory attributions aversive events bad events behavior believe beta-carbolines brain causal explanations causes changes Chapter cognitive therapy contiguity contingency correlation cues deficits depres depressed mood depressive explanatory style escape learning example expect explanatory style exposure factors failure fear GABA global helplessness experiment helplessness reformulation human helplessness hypothesis illness individual inescapable shock influence internal investigations involved laboratory learned help learned helplessness effects learned helplessness model learned helplessness theory less Maier Martin Seligman measure mediating motivation naltrexone ness neurons noncontingency nondepressed occur opiate outcomes particular passivity pessimistic explanatory style Peterson poor problems processes produce Psychology rats reactance receptors reinforcer relationship response Seligman shuttlebox social specific stable stress stressor studies subjects suggests symptoms T8 cells test task theorists tion trollability uncon uncontrollable events uncontrollable shock uncontrollable stressors unipolar depression versus