The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies

Front Cover
In this provocative and broad-ranging work, a distinguished team of authors argues that we are now seeing fundamental changes in the ways in which scientific, social and cultural knowledge is produced. They show how this trend marks a distinct shift towards a new mode of knowledge production which is replacing or reforming established institutions, disciplines, practices, and policies. Identifying a range of features associated with this new mode - reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, heterogeneity - the authors illustrate the connections between these features and the changing role of knowledge in social relations. While the main focus is on research and development in science and technology, the book outlines the changing dimensions of social scientific and humanities knowledge. The relations between the production of knowledge and its dissemination through education are also examined. The New Production of Knowledge places science policy and scientific knowledge in its broader context within contemporary societies. It will be essential reading for all those concerned with the changing nature of knowledge, the social study of science, educational systems, and with the relations between R & D and social, economic and technological development. -- from back cover.
 

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Contents

Evolution of Knowledge Production Summary
17
On the Phenomenology of the New Mode of Knowledge Production
27
The Dynamics of Mode 2 Knowledge Production
34
References
45
The Marketability and Commercialisation of Knowledge
46
Scale and Scope in Knowledge Production
51
Dynamic Competition and Knowledge Production
55
The Commercialisation of Research
59
Competitiveness Collaboration and Globalisation Summary
111
Networks Firms RD Alliances and Enterprise Webs
118
The Information Technology Paradigm
125
Some Paradoxical Consequences of Globalisation
128
References
136
Reconfiguring Institutions Summary
137
The Strain of Multifu nationality
141
Levels and Forms of Pluralisation
145

The New Economics of Production
61
Configurations of Knowledge
63
New Dimensions of Quality Control
65
Scale Scope and the New Mode of Knowledge Production
68
Massification of Research and Education Summary
70
Patterns of Massification in Higher Education
76
Colleglality Managerialism and the Fragmentation of Knowledge
81
Transition to the Knowledge Industries
84
The Changing Nature of Technology Transfer
86
The Case of the Humanities Summary
90
Similarities and Differences
93
Contextualisation and Meaning in the Humanities
105
References
110
The New Institutional Landscape of Knowledge Production
147
Reference
154
Towards Managing Socially Distributed Knowledge Summary
155
Three Phases or Science and Technology Policy
157
Rethinking Basic Assumptions
160
The Management of Distributed Knowledge Production
161
Future Issues
165
References
166
Glossary
167
Further Reading
169
Index
171
Copyright

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Page 4 - Mode 2, by contrast, knowledge results from a broader range of considerations. Such knowledge is intended to be useful to someone whether in industry or government, or society more generally and this imperative is present from the beginning. Knowledge is always produced under an aspect of continuous negotiation and it will not be produced unless and until the interests of the various actors are included.
Page 3 - The Age of Social Transformation', Atlantic Monthly, 1994, vol. 274, no. 5, November, pp. 53-80. 90 Michael Gibbons and colleagues distinguish knowledges as follows : 'in Mode 1 problems are set and solved in a context governed by the, largely academic, interests of a specific community.
Page 2 - culturally concentrated knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 1) and 'socially distributed knowledge' (the outcome of Mode 2). Mode 1 is defined as: a form of knowledge production - a complex of ideas, methods, values, norms that has grown up to control the diffusion of the Newtonian model to more and more fields of enquiry and to ensure its compliance with what is considered sound scientific practice. (Gibbons et al. 1994:2) Mode 1 is what the academy would conventionally consider 'scientific...
Page 5 - First, it develops a distinct but evolving framework to guide problem solving efforts. This is generated and sustained in the context of application and not developed first and then applied to that context later by a different group of practitioners. The solution does not arise solely, or even mainly, from the application of knowledge that already exists. Although elements of existing knowledge must have entered into it, genuine creativity is involved and the theoretical consensus, once attained...
Page 5 - Second, because the solution comprises both empirical and theoretical components it is undeniably a contribution to knowledge, though not necessarily disciplinary knowledge. Though it has emerged from a particular context of application, transdisciplinary knowledge develops its own distinct theoretical structures, research methods, and modes of practice, though they may not be located on the prevalent disciplinary map. The effort is cumulative, though the direction of accumulation may travel in a...

About the author (1994)

Born in Vienna (Austria). Helga Nowotny has been Professor of Social Studies of Science at ETH Zurich and Director of Collegium Helveticum until 2002. She has been Founding Director of “Society in Science:The Branco Weiss Fellowship” based at ETH Zurich. Currently she is Chair of EURAB, the European Research Advisory Board of the European Commission and member of the Scientific Council of the proposed ERC. She is a Fellow of the Science Center Vienna (WZW). She has a doctorate in law from the University of Vienna and a Ph.D. in sociology from Columbia University, New York. She has held teaching and research positions in Vienna, Cambridge, Bielefeld, Berlin and Paris and has been a Fellow at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin. From 1974-1986 she has been Executive and Founding Director of the European Center in Vienna and for seven years Chairperson of the Standing Committee for the Social Sciences of the European Science Foundation. From 1987 she was Professor of Social Studies of Science at the University of Vienna and Permanent Fellow of Collegium Budapest/Institute for Advanced Study before moving to ETH Zurich. Helga Nowotny is a member of the Scientific or Advisory Board of many scientific and policy-oriented institutions in Europe and Member of the Academia Europaea. She was awarded the Bernal Prize 2003 by the Society for Social Studies of Science, and is prizewinner of the “Arthur Burkhardt Preis für Wissenschaftsförderung 2002. She has authored, co-authored or edited more than 25 books and published widely on topics of societal development, social studies of science and technology and on the relationship between science and society.

Trow was born in New York on June 21, 1926, and attended primary and secondary schools in New York City. He served in the U.S. Navy for three years, separating with officer rank, before matriculating at the Stevens Institute of Technology in 1947. He practiced briefly as a mechanical engineer before entering Columbia University as a graduate student in sociology in 1948.

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